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Leposoma scincoides SPIX, 1825

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Ecpleopodinae), Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Skink Tegu
Portuguese: Lagartinho, Teiú-Pigmeu 
SynonymLeposoma scincoides SPIX 1825: 24
Lepidosoma scincoides — MÜLLER 1880: 127
Lepisoma scincoides — MÜLLER 1881: 172 (in error)
Leposoma scincoides — RUIBAL 1952: 485
Leposoma scincoides — PETERS et al. 1970: 165
Leposoma scincoides — WHITING et al. 2003
Leposoma scincoides — DAMASCENO et al. 2020 
DistributionBrazil (Bahia, Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro)

Type locality: Banks of Rio Amazon, Brazil.  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: lost, was ZSM 641/0, now lost fide Franzen & Glaw 2007 
DiagnosisDescription. Frontonasals longitudinally divided, the posterior borders concave and in contact with the first supraocular and pre-frontals; prefrontals in contact medially; frontal hexagonal and bordered laterally by the second and part of the third supraocular; fronto-parietals in contact medially and slightly larger than the prefrontals; interparietal narrower and equal in length to the parietals. All head scales with longitudinal striations. Nostril in a nasal that is grooved dorsally; superciliaries 5; palpebrals 3; suboculars 5; temporals keeled; upper labials 6; lower labials 5, of which the second is the largest. A single mental followed by 2 pairs of postmentals in contact medially, the second pair being the largest; a third pair of postmentals separated medially by 2 keeled and imbricate scales and in contact laterally with the lower labials. Pregular scales convex and posteriorly pointed. Dorsals hexagonal, longer than wide. Side of neck with very small, keeled, non-imbricate scales. Gulars and ventrals longer than wide, keeled, imbricate and mucronate, in transverse and diagonal rows rather than longitudinal. An indistinct collar fold. A single median anterior preanal; posterior preanals 5, the median scale the smallest. Scales of the forelimbs keeled and imbricate; on hind limbs also keeled and imbricate except for the posterior surface of femur that bears flat, non-imbricate scales. Tail with keeled and imbricate scales on ventral and dorsal surface; the scales are arranged in diagonal and transverse series but not in longitudinal rows. The specimen is a female and has 2 preanal pores but no femoral pores (Ruibal 1952).

Scale counts. Midbody, 25; transverse dorsal rows, 32; transverse ventral rows, 22; gulars, 8 (Ruibal 1952).

Color. It is impossible to give a color description from the specimen examined since it is completely faded. Peters (1862) describes the type specimen as having the head, tail and ground color of dorsum a dark yellow-brown, the dorsum having from 3 to 4 longitudinal series of irregular dark flecks and the ventral region being yellow-gray (Ruibal 1952). 
CommentType species: Leposoma scincoides SPIX 1825 is the type species of the genus Leposoma SPIX 1825.

For diagnostic morphological characters distinguishing Marinussaurus, Amapasaurus, Anotosaura, Arthrosaura, Colobosauroides, Dryadosaura,Ecpleopus, Kaieteurosaurus, Leposoma, and Pantepuisaurus see Table 2 in PELOSO et al. 2011.

Species group: The scincoides group includes five bisexual species, four of which (Leposoma scincoides, Leposoma annectans, Leposoma nanodactylus, and Leposoma puk) are restricted to the formerly continuous strip of Atlantic Forests of eastern Brazil, and Leposoma baturitensis, which is endemic to an isolated forested mountain range in the semiarid Caatingas of the state of Ceará, northeastern Brazil (Rodrigues, 1997; Rodrigues and Borges, 1997; Rodrigues et al., 2002a,b). This group is diagnosed by narrower, elongated dorsal scales and lanceolate ventrals that are arranged in diagonal rather than longitudinal rows. 
References
  • Almeida-Gomes, Mauricio; DAVOR VRCIBRADIC, CARLA C. SIQUEIRA, MARA C. KIEFER, THAÍS KLAION, PATRÍCIA ALMEIDA-SANTOS, DENISE NASCIMENTO, CRISTINA V. ARIANI, VITOR N.T. BORGES-JUNIOR, RICARDO F. FREITAS-FILHO, MONIQUE VAN SLUYS and CARLOS F.D. ROCHA 2008. Herpetofauna of an Atlantic rainforest area (Morro São João) in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências 80(2): 291-300 - get paper here
  • Cozer, J. S., Pereira-Ribeiro, J., Linause, T. M., Ferreguetti, A. C., de Godoy Bergallo, H., & da Rocha, C. F. D. 2020. Reptile diversity in the Duas Bocas Biological Reserve, Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. Papéis Avulsos De Zoologia, 60, e20206040-e20206040 - get paper here
  • Damasceno, Roberta P, Ana Carolina Carnaval, Chodon Sass, Renato Sousa Recoder, Craig Moritz, and Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues. 2020. Geographic Restriction, Genetic Divergence, and Morphological Disparity in the Brazilian Atlantic Forests: Insights from Leposoma Lizards (Gymnophthalmidae, Squamata). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 154: 106993 - get paper here
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Müller, F. 1880. Erster Nachtrag zum Katalog der herpetologischen Sammlung des Basler Museums. Verh. Naturf. Ges. Basel 7: 120-165 - get paper here
  • Müller, Friedrich 1881. Zweiter Nachtrag zum Katalog der herpetologischen Sammlung des Basler Museums [1881 printed on paper]. Verh. naturf. Ges. Basel 7 (2): 166-174. - get paper here
  • Oliveira, Jane C.F.; Rodrigo Castellari Gonzalez; Paulo Passos; Davor Vrcibradic & Carlos Frederico Duarte Rocha 2020. Non-Avian Reptiles of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: status of knowledge and commented list. Pap. Avulsos Zool. 60: e20206024 - get paper here
  • Pellegrino, Katia C.M.; Miguel T. Rodrigues, D. James Harris, Yatiyo Yonenaga-Yassuda, Jack W. Sites Jr. 2011. Molecular phylogeny, biogeography and insights into the origin of parthenogenesis in the Neotropical genus Leposoma (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae): Ancient links between the Atlantic Forest and Amazonia. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 446–459 - get paper here
  • Peloso, Pedro L.V.; Katia C. M. Pellegrino, Miguel T. Rodrigues, and Teresa C.S. Ávila-Pires 2011. Description and Phylogenetic Relationships of a New Genus and Species of Lizard (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae) from the Amazonian Rainforest of Northern Brazil. American Museum Novitates (3713): 1-24 - get paper here
  • ROCHA, CARLOS FREDERICO D.; HELENA G.BERGALLO, JOSÉ P. POMBAL JR., LENA GEISE, MONIQUE VAN SLUYS, RONALDO FERNANDES, ULISSES CARAMASCHI 2004. FAUNA DE ANFÍBIOS, RÉPTEIS E MAMÍFEROS DO ESTADO DO RIO DE JANEIRO, SUDESTE DO BRASIL. Publ. Avul. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro (104): 3-23 - get paper here
  • Rodrigues M T. 1997. A new species of Leposoma (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from the Atlantic forest of Brazil. Herpetologica 53 (3): 383-389. - get paper here
  • Rodrigues, M.T. and D.M. Borges 1997. A new species of Leposoma (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from a relictual forest in semiarid northeastern Brazil. Herpetologica 53 (1): 1-6 - get paper here
  • Rodrigues, Miguel T. and Teresa C. S. Avila-Pires 2005. New lizard of the genus Leposoma (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae) from the Lower Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brazil. Journal of Herpetology 39 (4): 541-546 - get paper here
  • Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut, et al. 2002. A new species of Leposoma (Squamata, Gymnopthalmidae) from the remnant Atlantic Forests of the state of Bahia, Brazil. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 42 (14): 335-350 - get paper here
  • RODRIGUES, MIGUEL TREFAUT; MAURO TEIXEIRA JR., RENATO SOUSA RECODER, FRANCISCO DAL VECHIO, ROBERTA DAMASCENO & KATIA CRISTINA MACHADO PELLEGRINO 2013. A new species of Leposoma (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) with four fingers from the Atlantic Forest central corridor in Bahia, Brazil. Zootaxa 3635 (4): 459–475 - get paper here
  • Rojas-Padilla O, Menezes VQ, Dias IR, Argôlo AJS, Solé M, Orrico VGD 2020. Amphibians and reptiles of Parque Nacional da Serra das Lontras: an important center of endemism within the Atlantic Forest in southern Bahia, Brazil. ZooKeys 1002: 159-185 - get paper here
  • Ruibal, R. 1952. Revisionary studies of some South American Teiidae. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 106: 475-529 (477?)-529. - get paper here
  • Silva-Soares, T.; R.B. Ferreira; R.O.L. Salles; C.F.D. Rocha. 2011. Continental, insular and coastal marine reptiles from the municipality of Vitória, state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. Check List 7 (3): 290-298 - get paper here
  • Spix, J. B. von 1825. Animalia nova sive species nova lacertarum quas in itinere per Brasiliam annis MDCCCXVII-MDCCCXX jussu et auspicius Maximiliani Josephi I Bavariae Regis suscepto collegit et descripsit Dr. J. B. de Spix. Lipsiae: T. O. Weigel; F. S. Hübschmanni, Monachii, 26 pp. - get paper here
  • Whiting, A.S.; Aaron M. Bauer and Jack W. Sites, Jr. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships and limb loss in sub-Saharan African scincine lizards (Squamata: Scincidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 29 (3): 582-598 - get paper here
 
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