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Leptophis riveti DESPAX, 1910

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Despax's Parrot Snake 
SynonymLeptophis riveti DESPAX 1910: 368
Leptophis brevior BOULENGER 1914: 815
Thalerophis riveti — OLIVER 1948: 250
Leptophis riveti — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 164
Leptophis riveti — MERTENS 1973
Leptophis riveti — VILLA et al. 1988
Leptophis riveti — SAVAGE 2002: 672
Leptophis riveti — WALLACH et al. 2014: 374 
DistributionCosta Rica, Panama,
Ecuador, Peru (Amazonas), W/N Colombia,

Type locality: Gualaquiza, Ecuador, 730 m elevation.  
TypesHolotype: MNHN-RA 1906.0259 
DiagnosisDIAGNOSIS: The distinctive pattern of dark green bands on a coppery ground color and uniform bronze venter are unique among Costa Rican snakes (Savage 2002: 672).

DESCRIPTION: no loreal; 1 or 2 postoculars; 8 supralabials, with 2 bordering orbit; infralabials 9 to 11; usually 10; temporals variable, usually 1 + 2; keels usually present on all dorsal scale rows; prominent keels on two median caudal rows for most of tail length; anal divided; ventrals 133 to 155, angulate with a moderate keel; subcaudals 140 to 145; maxillary teeth 26 to 29. The retracted hemipenes are short (6 subcaudals long), without enlarged basal spines (Savage 2002: 672).

Coloration: Dorsum bronze with narrow bright green bands; head green above; narrow preocular black stripe not reaching level of nostril; narrow postocular black stripe extending onto neck (fig. 11.41c); undersurfaces of body and tail bronze; iris yellow interrupted by median black bar (Savage 2002: 672). 
CommentSynonymy mainly after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970.

Habitat: partly arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018). 
EtymologyNamed after Professor Dr. Paul Rivet (1876-1958), originally trained as a physician. He was on the second French Geodesic Mission to Ecuador (1901), staying until 1906. He became Director, Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (1928), and founded Musee de l'Homme (1937). He went to Colombia, where he founded Instituto Colombiano de Antropologia e Historia (1942-1945). 
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1914. On a second collection of batrachians and reptiles made by Dr. H. G. F. Spurrell, F.Z.S. in the Chocó, Colombia. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1914: 813-817 - get paper here
  • Despax, R. 1910. Mission géodésique de l’Équateur. Collections recueillies par M. le Dr Rivet. Liste des ophidiens et descriptions des espèces nouvelles. (Note préliminaire.). Bull. Mus. natl. Hist. nat. Paris 16: 368-376 - get paper here
  • Harrington, Sean M; Jordyn M de Haan, Lindsey Shapiro, Sara Ruane 2018. Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (1): 61–71 - get paper here
  • Mertens, R. 1973. Bemerkenswerte Schlanknattern der neotropischen Gattung Leptophis. Stud. Neotrop. Fauna 8: 141-154. - get paper here
  • Oliver, J. A. 1948. The relationships and zoogeography of the genus Thalerophis Oliver. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 92: 157-280. - get paper here
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • Peters , J. A. 1960. The snakes of Ecuador; check list and key. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 122: 489-541 - get paper here
  • Ray, Julie M. and Patty Ruback 2015. Updated checklists of snakes for the provinces of Panamá and Panamá Oeste, Republic of Panama. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (2): 168-188 - get paper here
  • Savage, J.M. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna Between Two Continents, Between Two Seas. University of Chicago Press, 934 pp. [review in Copeia 2003 (1): 205]
  • Solorzano, A. 2004. Serpientes de Costa Rica - Snakes of Costa Rica. Editorial INBio, Costa Rica, 792 pp.
  • Torres-Carvajal O, Pazmiño-Otamendi G, Salazar-Valenzuela D. 2019. Reptiles of Ecuador: a resource-rich portal, with a dynamic checklist and photographic guides. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 13 (1): [General Section]: 209–229 (e178) - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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