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Leptosiaphos graueri (STERNFELD, 1912)

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Eugongylinae (Eugongylini), Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Rwanda Five-toed Skink 
SynonymLygosoma graueri quinquedigitata STERNFELD 1912: 240
Lygosoma graueri quattuordigitata STERNFELD 1912: 242
Siaphos graueri — LOVERIDGE 1936: 71
Lygosoma (Leptosiaphos) graueri — SCHMIDT 1943
Lygosoma (Leptosiaphos) quattuordigitata — SCHMIDT 1943
Leptosiaphos (Leptosiaphos) graueri — MITTLEMAN 1952
Panaspis quattuordigitata — GREER 1974: 29
Panaspis graueri — GREER 1974: 29
Panaspis quattuordigitata — WELCH 1982: 91
Leptosiaphos graueri — BROADLEY 1998
Leptosiaphos (Leptosiaphos) graueri — BAUER et al. 2003
Leptosiaphos graueri quinquedigitata — SCHMITZ 2003
Leptosiaphos graueri — JESUS et al. 2007
Leptosiaphos graueri — SPAWLS et al. 2018: 159 
DistributionUganda, Rwanda, E Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire), Burundi

Type locality: Karisimbi and vicinity, Belgian Rwanda-Urundi.

quattuordigitata: Zaire; Type locality: Rugege Forest, Belgian Ruanda-Urundi [see comment]  
TypesSyntypes: ZMB 22293; Rugegewald (= Rugege Forest), Rwanda]: coll Johann G. Hermann Schubotz; ZMB 22449 (formerly part of ZMB 22293); Centr. Afrika, Bugoie Wald; coll Stegemann & Stein; ZMB 22445(3 specimens): Cent. Afr., Kivu-See (= Lake Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo or Rwanada); coll. Stegmann &. Stein; ZMB 22294-95; Karisimbi (= Mt. Karissimbi, Rwanda); coll. Johann G. Hermann Schubotz; ZMB 22296 (2 specimens); Nyragongo; coll Johann G. Hermann Schubotz; ZMB 22552 (4 specimens); am Fuße des Karissimbi; coll. Johann G. Hermann Schubotz.
Syntypes: ZMB 22293; Rugegewald [= Rugege Forest, Rwanda]; coll. Johann G Hermann Schubotz; ZMB 22449 (formerly part of ZMB 22293); CentI. Afrika, Bugoie Wald; coll. Stegemann & Stein [quattuordigitata] 
CommentSynonymy: fide BAUER et al. 2003.

Subspecies: Sternfeld (1912) described this species with two subspecics. There was no implicit description of a Lygosoma g. graueri; in other words, no nominate subspecies was erected. Rather, the two subspecies, L. g. quinquedigitata and L g. quattuordigitata together constituted the species as a whole. Loveridge (1942) synonymized L. g. quinquedigitata with graueri, refering to this form as L. graueri graueri and implying the recognition of L. g. quattuordigitata as a valid subspecies. (after BAUER et al. 2003).

Apparently not listed in the Zoological Record of 1912 or 1913. Not listed by BROADLEY & POYNTON 1998 for the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire). 
Etymologynamed after Rudolf Grauer (1870-1927), an Austrian explorer and zoologist who collected in the then Belgian Congo (1909 and 1910-1927). See for more details. 
  • Bauer, A.M., Shea, G.M., and Günther, R. 2003. An annotated catalogue of the types of scincid lizards (Reptilia: Squamata: Scincidae) in the collection of the Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin (ZMB). Zoologische Reihe. Mitteilungen aus dem Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin 79:253-321 - get paper here
  • Blackburn, D.G. 1993. STANDARDIZED CRITERIA FOR THE RECOGNITION OF REPRODUCTIVE MODES IN SQUAMATE REPTILES. Herpetologica 49 (1): 118-132 - get paper here
  • Broadley, D G 1989. A reappraisal of the genus Panaspis Cope, with the description of a new species of Leptosiaphos (Reptilia: Scincidae) from Tanzania. Arnoldia Zimbabwe 9 (32) 1989: 439-449
  • Broadley, D.G. 1998. The reptilian fauna of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo-Kinshasa). In: Schmidt, K.P. and Noble, G.K., Contributions to the Herpetology of the Belgian Congo... [reprint of the 1919 and 1923 papers]. SSAR Facsimile reprints in Herpetology, 780 pp.
  • Greer, A.E. 1974. The generic relationships of the scincid lizard genus Leiolopisma and its relatives. Australian Journal of Zoology 31: 1-67. - get paper here
  • Jesus, José; D. James Harris and António Brehm 2007. Relationships of Afroablepharus Greer, 1974 skinks from the Gulf of Guinea islands based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA: Patterns of colonization and comments on taxonomy. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 45 (3): 904-914 - get paper here
  • Loveridge, A. 1936. African reptiles and amphibians in the Field Museum of Natural History. Zool. Ser. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Chicago, 22 (1): 1-122 - get paper here
  • Roelke, Corey E. & Smith, E.N. 2010. Herpetofauna, Parc National des Volcans, North Province, Republic of Rwanda. Check List 6 (4): 525-531 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, K. P. 1943. Amphibians and reptiles from the Sudan. Field Mus. nat. Hist (ser. zool.) 24: 331- 338. - get paper here
  • Schmitz, A. 2003. Taxonomic and phylogenetic studies on scincid lizards (Reptilia: Scincidae). Thesis, University Bonn, Germany
  • Spawls, S.; Howell, K.; Drewes, R.C. & Ashe, J. 2002. A field guide to the reptiles of East Africa. Academic Press, 543 pp. [reviews in HR 34: 396 and Afr. J. Herp. 51; 147] - get paper here
  • Spawls, Steve; Kim Howell, Harald Hinkel, Michele Menegon 2018. Field Guide to East African Reptiles. Bloomsbury, 624 pp. - get paper here
  • Sternfeld, R. 1912. IV. Zoologie II. Lfg. Reptilia. In: Schubotz., R. (ed.): Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Deutschen Zentral-Afrika Expedition 1907- 1908, unter Führung A. Friedrichs, Herzogs zu Mecklenburg. Klinkhard und Biermann, Leipzig: 197-279 [published 1912, not 1913, as often cited, see Männel & Kucharzewski 2017] - get paper here
  • Welch, K.R.G. 1982. Herpetology of Africa; a checklist and bibliography of the orders Amphisbaenia, Sauria, and Serpentes. Robert E. Krieger Pub. Co., Malabar, FL 293 pp.
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