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Letheobia simoni (BOETTGER, 1879)

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Higher TaxaTyphlopidae (Afrotyphlopinae), Typhlopoidea, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Israeli Worm Snake
G: Israelische Wurmschlange 
SynonymOnychocephalus simoni BOETTGER 1879: 58
Onychocephalus simoni — BOETTGER 1880: 135
Typhlops simonii — BOULENGER 1893: 51
Rhinotyphlops simoni — WALLACH 1994
Rhinotyphlops simoni — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 87
Rhinotyphlops simoni — VENCHI & SINDACO 2006
Typhlops simoni — AL-QURAN 2009
Letheobia simonii — BROADLEY & WALLACH 2007
Rhinotyphlops simonii — PYRON & BURBRINK 2013
Letheobia simonii — HEDGES et al. 2014
Letheobia simoni — WALLACH et al. 2014: 382
Letheobia simoni — WALLACH & GEMEL 2018 
DistributionIsrael, Syria, NW Jordan (Franzen 2000)

Type locality: “Haiffa syriae” (Haifa, Israel)  
TypesHolotype: SMF 16673. Not stated in the original description except to note a single example (stated to be No. 7051, la in Boettger 1898. Mertens, 1967:87, stated that Boettger's 7051, la (now SMF 16673) is the lectotype. However, being that Boettger described simoni based on a single specimen, this apparently is a mistake and SMF 16673 is the holotype (A W). 
CommentDistribution: For a map see Sindaco et al. 2013. 
EtymologyNamed after Hans Simon (d. 1898), a collector for Naturmuseum Senckenberg, Frankfurt. He traveled in Haifa and Jerusalem (1879), Morocco (1880), and West Africa (1884). 
  • Al-Quran, S. 2009. The Herpetofauna of the Southern Jordan. American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 6 (4): 385-391 [this journal has a dubious record, see]
  • Bar, Aviad and Guy Haimovitch 2012. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Israel. Pazbar LTD, 246 pp. - get paper here
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Boettger, O. 1879. Reptilien und Amphibien aus Syrien. Ber. Senck. Naturf. Ges. naturf. Ges. 1878-1879: 57-84 - get paper here
  • Boettger, O. 1898. Katalog der Reptilien-Sammlung im Museum der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Frankfurt/M. 2.Teil (Schlangen). [type catalogue] Frankfurt/M (Gebr. Knauer), i-ix + 1-160. - get paper here
  • Boettger, O. [as O. Böttger] 1880. Die Reptilien und Amphibien von Syrien, Palaestina und Cypern. Ber. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., Frankfurt/M., 1879-1880: 132-219 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Broadley, Donald G. & Wallach, V. 2007. A review of East and Central African species of Letheobia Cope, revived from the synonymy of Rhinotyphlops Fitzinger, with descriptions of five new species (Serpentes: Typhlopidae). Zootaxa 1515: 31–68 - get paper here
  • Disi, A.M.; Modry, D.; Necas, P. & Rifai, L. 2001. Amphibians and reptiles of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 408 pp.
  • Franzen, M. & V. Wallach 2002. A new Rhinotyphlops from southeastern Turkey (Serpentes: Typhlopidae). Journal of Herpetology 36 (2): 176-184 - get paper here
  • Franzen,M. 2000. Erstnachweis der Gattung Rhinotyphlops FITZINGER 1843 für die Türkei (Serpentes: Typhlopidae). Salamandra 36 (2): 103-112 - get paper here
  • Gruber, U. 2009. Die Schlangen Europas, 2. Aufl. Kosmos Naturführer, 266 pp.
  • Hedges, S.B., Marion, A.B., Lipp, K.M., Marin, J. & Vidal, N. 2014. A taxonomic framework for typhlopid snakes from the Caribbean and other regions (Reptilia, Squamata). Caribbean Herpetology 49: 1–61 - get paper here
  • Matsubara, K., Kumazawa, Y., Ota, H., Nishida, C., & Matsuda, Y. 2019. Karyotype Analysis of Four Blind Snake Species (Reptilia: Squamata: Scolecophidia) and Karyotypic Changes in Serpentes. Cytogenetic and Genome Research - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Meiri, Shai; Amos Belmaker, Daniel Berkowic, Kesem Kazes, Erez Maza, Guy Bar-Oz and Roi Dor 2019. A checklist of Israeli land vertebrates. Israel Journal of Ecology and Evolution - get paper here
  • Mertens, R. 1967. Die herpetologische Sektion des Natur-Museums und Forschungs-Institutes Senckenberg in Frankfurt am Main nebst einem Verzeichnis ihrer Typen. Senckenbergiana Biologica 48: 1-106 - get paper here
  • Pyron, R. Alexander; Frank T. Burbrink 2013. Early origin of viviparity and multiple reversions to oviparity in squamate reptiles. Ecology Letters 17 (1): 13–21 (published online 2013, in print 2014), DOI: 10.1111/ele.12168 - get paper here
  • Sindaco, R.; Alberto Venchi & Cristina Grieco 2013. The Reptiles of the Western Palearctic, Volume 2: Annotated Checklist and Distributional Atlas of the Snakes of Europe, North Africa, Middle East and Central Asia, with an Update to Volume 1. Edizioni Belvedere, Latina (Italy), 543 pp. - get paper here
  • Venchi, Alberto and Roberto Sindaco 2006. Annotated checklist of the reptiles of the Mediterranean countries, with keys to species identification. Part 2 -Snakes (Reptilia, Serpentes). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale "G. Doria", Genova, XCVIII: 259-364
  • Wallach V. 1994. The status of the Indian endemic Typhlops acutus (Dumeril and Bibron) and the identity of Typhlops psittacus Werner (Reptilia, Serpentes, Typhlopidae). BULLETIN DE L'INSTITUT ROYAL DES SCIENCES NATURELLES DE BELGIQUE BIOLOGIE. 1994. vol. 64, pp. 209-229.
  • Wallach, V. & Gemel, R. 2018. Typhlops weidholzi n. inedit., a new species of Letheobia from the republic of Cameroon, and a synopsis of the genus (Squamata: Serpentes: Scolecophidia: Typhlopidae). Herpetozoa 31 (1/2): 27 - 46 - get paper here
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