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Lichanura trivirgata COPE, 1861

IUCN Red List - Lichanura trivirgata - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaBoidae (Charinaidae, Charininae), Henophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Rosy Boa
gracia: Desert Rosy Boa
roseofusca: Coastal Rosy Boa
trivirgata: Mexican Rosy Boa
G: Rosenboa, Dreistreifen-Rosenboa
S: Boa del Desierto 
SynonymLichanura trivirgata COPE 1861: 304
Lichanura roseofusca COPE 1868
Lichanura myriolepis COPE 1868: 2
Lichanura trivirgata — BOULENGER 1893: 129
Lichanura roseofusca — VAN DENBURGH 1895: 138
Lichanura trivirgata — VAN DENBURGH 1895: 137
Lichanura trivirgata gracia KLAUBER 1931
Lichanura ruseofusca gracia KLAUBER 1931: 307
Lichanura roseofusca gracia — TAYLOR 1938: 489
Lichanura roseofusca gracia — CLIFF 1954
Lichanura ruseofusca gracia — TURNER 1959
Lichanura ruseofusca — GORMAN & GRESS 1970
Lichanura trivirgata trivirgata — YINGLING 1982
Lichanura trivirgata gracia — YINGLING 1982
Lichanura trivirgata roseofusca — YINGLING 1982
Lichanura trivirgata gracia — STEBBINS 1985: 174
Lichanura trivirgata — STEBBINS 1985: 173
Lichanura trivirgata roseofusca — STEBBINS 1985: 174
Lichanura trivirgata saslowi (SPITERI 1987 in BARTLETT 1987)
Lichanura trivirgata arizonae SPITERI 1991
Lichanura trivirgata bostici SPITERI 1991
Charina trivirgata — KLUGE 1993
Lichanura trivirgata — LINER 1994
Charina trivirgata — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 203
Lichanura trivirgata gracia — CROTHER 2000: 65
Lichanura trivirgata roseofusca — CROTHER 2000: 65
Lichanura trivirgata saslowi — AKERET 2008
Lichanura trivirgata — WOOD et al. 2008
Lichanura trivirgata — CROTHER et al. 2012
Lichanura trivirgata roseofusca — LAITA 2013
Lichanura trivirgata — WALLACH et al. 2014: 384
Lichanura trivirgatta — ESQUERRÉ & KEOGH 2016 (in error)
Lichanura trivirgata myriolepis — SCHMIDT 2016
Lichanura trivirgata — REYNOLDS & HENDERSON 2018: 30 
DistributionUSA (S California, SW Arizona),
Mexico (Baja California, Isla Espíritu Santo, W Sonora)

gracia: USA (California, SW Arizona), Mexico (N Baja California); Type locality: Randsburg, Kern County, California.

myriolepis: Mexico (N Baja California); Type locality: ”northern part of Lower California [Mexico].”

roseofusca: Mexico (N Baja California), USA (S California); Type locality: “northern part of Lower California”.

saslowi: Mexico (Baja California Norte) [Wood et al. 2008]

trivirgata: Mexico (S Baja California, Sonora); Type locality: Cape San Lucas, Baja California.  
TypesHolotype: USNM 15502 (Cochran 1961: 195 and USNM type catalog). Syntype: ANSP 6698 (skin only).
Holotype: SDNHM = SDSNH 2995 [gracia]
Holotype: ANSP 6700; northern part of Lower California [myriolepis]
Holotype: ANSP 6699 [roseofusca] 
CommentSynonymy: The validity of SPITERI’s subspecies bostici and saslowi has been questioned by KLUGE 1993. Lichanura trivirgata arizonae is not listed by CROTHER 2000, nor by WOOD et al. 2008. We consider them as synonyms of L. trivirgata.

Illustrations: see several variants as high-res images in LAITA 2013.

Subspecies: Based on mtDNA data, WOOD et al. (2008) separated L. orcutti (including L. simplex as a synonym) as an evolutionary species from L. trivirgata (which included L. roseofusca and myriolepis as synonyms). However, they did not provide a diagnosis of this species. These author do not discuss/analyze arizonae, and mention saslowi only once and gracia a few times. These authors do not recognize gracia, roseofusca, myriolepis, and saslowi and therefore relegate them to the synonymy of L. trivirgata (although the authors of this paper do not explicitly address this issue).

Klauber (1931) noted that L. t. gracia and L. t. roseofusca ‘‘are virtually indistinguishable in scale counts”, but based the diagnosis on the color and pattern of the dorsal and lateral stripes. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that L. t. gracia populations in California (within Lineage A) are actually more closely related to L. t. roseofusca than they are to their subspecific counterparts in Arizona (=Lineage B), which makes this subspecies paraphyletic (non-exclusive) as currently described [from WOOD et al. 2008].

Distribution: see maps in Yingling 1982, Heimes 2016, Wood et al. 2008.

Type species: Lichanura trivirgata COPE 1861: 304 is the type species of the genus Lichanura COPE 1861. 
EtymologyThe specific name trivirgata is Latin, meaning three-striped.

L. roseofusca was named after Latin roseus = ruddy, and fuscus = dusky.

L. r. gracia was named after Latin gracilis = gentle.

The genus name Lichanura is derived from two Greek words, lichanos, the forefinger, and oura, tail; this may be an allusion to the body form of this snake. 
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