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Limaformosa crossi (BOULENGER, 1895)

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Higher TaxaLamprophiidae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: African File Snake, Crosse’s File Snake 
SynonymSimocephalus crossi BOULENGER 1895: 33
Simocephalus riggenbachi STERNFELD 1908 (fide HALLERMANN 2007)
Simocephalus crossi — ANGEL 1933: 96
Mehelya crossi — PAPENFUSS 1969: 309
Mehelya crossi — HUGHES 1983
Mehelya crossii — TRAPE & MANÉ 2002
Mehelya crossi — CHIRIO & LEBRETON 2007: 478
Gonionotophis crossi — KELLY et al. 2011
Mehelya crossi — SEGNIAGBETO et al. 2012
Mehelya crossi — HUGHES 2013
Mehelya crossi — WALLACH et al. 2014: 425
Mehelya crossi — TRAPE & BALDÉ 2014
Mehelya crossi — TRAPE & MANÉ 2017
Limaformosa crossi — BROADLEY et al. 2018
Gonionotophis crossi — CHIPPAUX & JACKSON 2019: 210
Gonionotophis crossi — SENTER & CHIPPAUX 2022 
DistributionBenin, Nigeria, Mali, Central African Republic, Cameroon (Hughes 1983), Senegal, Burkina Faso, W Niger, Togo, Guinea (Conakry), Ivory Coast, Ghana, Republic of South Sudan (RSS), Chad, Liberia

riggenbachi: Cameroon

Type locality: Asaba, Nigeria  
TypesType: BMNH 1946.1.14.49 (and possibly additional specimens).
Holotype: ZMB 29461Ubac, Kamerun [Simocephalus riggenbachi] 
EtymologyNamed after Dr. William Henry Crosse (1859-1903), a traveler and collector who operated in Nigeria. 
  • Angel,F. 1933. Les serpents de l’Afrique occidentale Francaise. Paris, Larose Editeurs, 246 pp
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Böhme, Wolfgang, Mark-Oliver Rödel, Christian Brede & Philipp Wagner 2011. The reptiles (Testudines, Squamata, Crocodylia) of the forested southeast of the Republic Guinea (Guinée forestière), with a country-wide checklist. Bonn zoological Bulletin 60 (1): 35-61 - get paper here
  • Boulenger,G.A. 1895. On some new or little-known reptiles obtained by W. H. Crosse Esq. on the Niger. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 16: 32-34 - get paper here
  • Broadley, Donald G. 2007. On the status of Simocephalus riggenbachi Sternfeld 1910. African Journal of Herpetology 56(2):171-173 - get paper here
  • Broadley, Donald G.; Krystal A. Tolley, Werner Conradie, Sarah Wishart, Jean-François Trape, Marius Burger, Chifundera Kusamba, Ange-Ghislain Zassi-Boulou & Eli Greenbaum 2018. A phylogeny and genus-level revision of the African file snakes Gonionotophis Boulenger (Squamata: Lamprophiidae). African Journal of Herpetology, DOI: 10.1080/21564574.2018.1423578 - get paper here
  • Chippaux, Jean-Philippe & Kate Jackson 2019. Snakes of Central and Western Africa. Johns Hopkins University Press, 448 pp. [detaileld review in HR 51 (1): 161] - get paper here
  • Chirio, L. 2009. Inventaire des reptiles de la région de la Réserve de Biosphère Transfrontalière du W (Niger/Bénin/Burkina Faso: Afrique de l’Ouest). [Herpetological survey of the W Transfrontier Biosphere Reserve area (Niger/Benin/Burkina Faso: West Africa]. Bull. Soc. Herp. France (132): 13-41 - get paper here
  • Chirio, L. & Lebreton, M. 2007. Atlas des reptiles du Cameroun. MNHN, IRD, Paris 688 pp.
  • ETO, K 2020. Limaformosa crossi (Crosse’s File Snake) and Mehelya poensis (Western Forest File Snake). Coloration/Biofluorescence. Herpetological Review 51: 622-623.
  • Hallermann, J. 2007. The status of problematic snake types of the Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin (Reptilia, Serpentes). Mitt. Mus. Nat.kd. Berl., Zool. Reihe 83 (2): 160–165 - get paper here
  • Howell, Kim M. and Donald G. Broadley. 2014. Gonionotophis crossii (Boulenger, 1895) Crosse's File Snake. African Herp News (61): 41-42 - get paper here
  • Hughes, B. 1983. African snake faunas. Bonner Zoologische Beiträge 34: 311-356 - get paper here
  • Hughes, B. 2013. Snakes of Bénin, West Africa. Bull. Soc. Herp. France 144: 101-159
  • Kelly, Christopher M.R.; William R. Branch, Donald G. Broadley, Nigel P. Barker, Martin H. Villet 2011. Molecular systematics of the African snake family Lamprophiidae Fitzinger, 1843 (Serpentes: Elapoidea), with particular focus on the genera Lamprophis Fitzinger 1843 and Mehelya Csiki 1903. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 58(3): 415-426 - get paper here
  • Lönnberg, E. 1910. Two new snakes from Lower Congo. Arkiv för Zoologi 7 (8): 1-8 - get paper here
  • Papenfuss, T. J. 1969. Preliminary analysis of the reptiles of arid central West Africa. Wasmann Journal of Biology 27:249—325 - get paper here
  • Segniagbeto GLazcano. H., Trape J. F., David P., Ohler A., Dubois A. & Glitho I. A. 2011. The snake fauna of Togo: systematics, distribution and biogeography, with remarks on selected taxonomic problems. Zoosystema 33 (3): 325-360. DOI: 10.5252/z2011n3a4 - get paper here
  • Senter, P. J., & Chippaux, J. P. 2022. Biogeography of snakes in Liberia: Review and synthesis of current knowledge. Ghana Journal of Science, 63(1), 29-62 - get paper here
  • Sternfeld,R. 1908. Die Schlangenfauna von Kamerun. Mitt. zool. Mus. Berlin 3 (4): 397-432 - get paper here
  • Sternfeld,R. 1910. Neue Beiträge zur Schlangenfauna Kameruns. Mitt. zool. Mus. Berlin 5: 61-65 - get paper here
  • Trape J-F and Mané Y. 2015. The snakes of Niger. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 9(2) [Special Section]: 39–55 (e110) - get paper here
  • Trape, J.-F. & Mané, Y. 2002. Les serpents du Sénégal: liste commentée des espèces. Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. 95 (3): 148-150
  • Trape, J.-F. & Mané, Y. 2006. Guide des serpents d’Afrique occidentale. Savane et désert. [Senegal, Gambia, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger]. IRD Editions, Paris, 226 pp. - get paper here
  • TRAPE, JEAN-FRANÇOIS & CELLOU BALDÉ 2014. A checklist of the snake fauna of Guinea, with taxonomic changes in the genera Philothamnus and Dipsadoboa (Colubridae) and a comparison with the snake fauna of some other West African countries. Zootaxa 3900 (3): 301–338 - get paper here
  • Trape, Jean-François; Israël Demba Kodindo, Ali Sougoudi Djiddi, Joseph Mad-Toïngué & Clément Hinzoumbé Kerah 2020. The snakes of Chad: results of a field survey and annotated country-wide checklist. Bonn zoological Bulletin 69 (2): 367–393 - get paper here
  • Trape, Jean-François & Youssouph Mané 2017. The snakes of Mali. Bonn zoological Bulletin 66 (2): 107–133 - get paper here
  • Ukuwela, K.D.B., de Silva, A., Sivaruban, A. et al. 2022. Diversity, distribution, and natural history of the marine snakes of Sri Lanka. Marine Biodiversity 52, 24 (2022) - get paper here
  • Ullenbruch, K.; Grell, O.; Böhme, W. 2010. Reptiles from southern Benin, West Africa, with the description of a new Hemidactylus (Gekkonidae), and a country-wide checklist. Bonn Zool. Bull. 57 (1): 31-54 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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