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Liolaemus kolengh ABDALA & LOBO, 2006

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Higher TaxaLiolaemidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common Names 
SynonymLiolaemus kolengh ABDALA & LOBO 2006 
DistributionArgentina (Santa Cruz), elevation 1000-1485 m, Chile (Lago Jeinimeni National Reserve)

Type locality: Ceballos Hill way, near to Ceballos river, Department of Lago Buenos Aires, Province of Santa Cruz, Argentine. S 47°01.542’; W 71°48.475’, 1485 m elevation.  
TypesHolotype: FML 10870. Adult male, Abdala, C. P. Cacivio, L. Federico, F. Lobo. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Following the diagnosis made by Etheridge (1995), Liolaemus kolengh is classified in the lineomaculatus group, because of the absence of precloacal pores in both sexes, and the presence of dorsal trifid scales. Compared to L. lineomaculatus, the new species has fewer scales around the midbody (48-58, x = 52.7, vs. 56-68, x = 60.1), fewer ventral scales (61-76, x = 69.8, vs. 85-92, x = 88.0), fewer temporal scales (6-8, x = 7.1, vs. 10-11, x = 10.2), strongly keeled dorsal scales (soft-keeled in L. lineomaculatus), a melanic ventral region (immaculate white abdomen in L. lineomaculatus). Within the Lineomaculatus group, L. kolengh is included in the silvanae group (Etheridge, 1995) because its nuchal scales are keeled and imbricate, and its femoral scales are subimbricate. Compared to L. silvanae, the new species has fewer scales around the midbody (48-58, x = 52.7, vs. 55-68, x = 64.7), fewer ventral scales (61-76, x = 69.8, vs. 73-78, x = 76.0), shorter snout-vent length (49.8-62.2, x = 57.3 mm, vs. 68.1-73.1, x = 70.4 mm), slightly keeled temporal scales (strongly keeled scales in L. silvanae), antegular pocket with granular inner scales (antegular pocket without granular inner scales in L. silvanae). Ac-cording to Donoso Barros & Cei (1971), Cei & Scolaro (1982a), and Cei (1986), the coloration of L. silvanae males ranges from dark to black, with some light blue or yellow scales on the tail. There are also light blue marks on the sides, and blue or black marks on the ventral region. This pattern is very different from L. kolengh males, which do not have a dark or black background color, or blue scales on the sides or tail. L. kolengh males are almost completely melanic ventrally, without the blue shades found in L. silvanae. Liolaemus kolengh differs from L. hatcheri, another species of the silvanae group, in the following ways: fewer ventral scales (61-76, x = 69.8; vs. 66-84, x = 74.1), background color yellow, orange or red, with large, closely spaced paravertebral and lateral marks, darker dorsal pattern, with less pronounced transverse lines (lighter background color, never yellow orange or red, and lighter dorsal pattern, with smaller paravertebral and lateral marks, separated by pronounced, wide, light transverse lines in L. hatcheri). In L. kolengh, the throat, chest, abdomen, members and tail are melanic in 95% of individuals, while in L. hatcheri, only the abdominal region is melanic, and the rest of the body is variegated, showing, on the tail, characteristic light patches which sometimes describe parallel bands. Another basal species in the Liolaemus genus (Etheridge 1995), also from Patagonia and related to the lineomaculatus group, is L. magellanicus. The clearest difference between this species and L. kolengh is the presence of precloacal pores in the former, and their absence in the latter. Additionally, L. kolengh has more scales around the midbody (48-58, x = 52.7; vs. 37-52, x = 40.1), more scales between the occiput and the leg (38-53, x = 45.4; vs. 33-40, x = 36.3), more scales on the neck (30-38, x = 33.8; vs. 24-30, x = 27.8), more throat scales (29-39, x = 34.1; vs. 26-30, x = 27.7), melanic ventral coloration pattern (variegated pattern either without melanism, or with diffused melanism only in the abdominal region in L. magellanicus, without the definite patches or bands on the tail, found in L. hatcheri).
CommentGroup: lineomaculatus group. 
Etymology“Kolengh” means “thorn” in Patagonia’s indigenous Tehuelche language, making reference to one characteristic of the new taxon: the presence of long sharp scales, which give the lizard a bristly or “thorny” appearance in the dorsolateral region. 
  • Abdala, Cristian and Fernando Lobo 2006. Description of a new patagonian Lizard of the Liolaemus silvanae group (Iguania: Liolaemidae). South American J. Herp. 1 (1): 1-8 - get paper here
  • ABDALA, CRISTIAN SIMÓN; DIEGO ESTEBAN PROCOPIO, OSCAR ANÍBAL STELLATELLI, ALEJANDRO TRAVAINI, ALEJANDRO RODRÍGUEZ & MARIO RICARDO RUIZ MONACHESI 2014. New Patagonian species of Liolaemus (Iguania: Liolaemidae) and novelty in the lepidosis of the southernmost lizard of the world: Liolaemus magellanicus. Zootaxa 3866 (4): 526–542 - get paper here
  • Abdala, Cristian Simón; Quinteros, Andres Sebastian 2014. Los últimos 30 años de estudios de la familia de lagartijas más diversa de Argentina. Actualización taxonómica y sistemática de Liolaemidae. Cuad. herpetol. 28 (2): 55-82 - get paper here
  • AVILA, LUCIANO JAVIER; LORENA ELIZABETH MARTINEZ & MARIANA MORANDO 2013. Checklist of lizards and amphisbaenians of Argentina: an update. Zootaxa 3616 (3): 201–238 - get paper here
  • Breitman, M. Florencia; , Luciano J. Avila, Jack W. Sites Jr., and Mariana Morando 2011. Lizards from the end of the world: Phylogenetic relationships of the Liolaemus lineomaculatus section (Squamata: Iguania: Liolaemini). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 59 (2): 364-376 - get paper here
  • Breitman, M.F.; Parra, M.; Fulvio Pérez, C.H. & Sites Jr., J.W. 2011. Two new species of lizards from the Liolaemus lineomaculatus section (Squamata: Iguania: Liolaemidae) from southern Patagonia. Zootaxa 3120: 1–28 - get paper here
  • Breitman, María Florencia; Mariana Morando and Luciano Javier Avila 2013. Past and present taxonomy of the Liolaemus lineomaculatus section (Liolaemidae): is the morphological arrangement hypothesis valid? Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 168 (3): 612–668 - get paper here
  • Breitman, María Florencia; Minoli, Ignacio; Avila, Luciano Javier; Medina, Cintia Debora; Sites, Jr., Jack Walter; Morando, Mariana 2014. Lagartijas de la provincia de Santa Cruz (Argentina): distribución geográfica, diversidad genética y estado de conservación . Cuad. herpetol. 28 (2): 83-110 - get paper here
  • Demangel, Diego 2016. Reptiles en Chile. Fauna Nativa Ediciones, Santiago, 619 pp - get paper here
  • Núñez, Herman and Juan C. Torres-Mura 2014. LIOLAEMUS KOLENGH (SAURIA: LIOLAEMIDAE), IN LAGO JEINIMENI NATIONAL RESERVE, A NEW LIZARD FOR CHILE. Boletín del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Chile, 63: 43-50
  • PINCHEIRA-DONOSO, DANIEL & J. ALEJANDRO SCOLARO 2007. Iguanian species-richness in the Andes of boreal Patagonia: Evidence for an additional new Liolaemus lizard from Argentina lacking precloacal glands (Iguania, Liolaeminae). Zootaxa 1452: 55-68 - get paper here
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