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Loxopholis osvaldoi (AVILA-PIRES, 1995)

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Ecpleopodinae), Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesPortuguese: Lagartinho-do-Folhiço 
SynonymLeposoma osvaldoi AVILA-PIRES 1995: 394
Leposoma parietale — NASCIMENTO et al. 1988: 38 (part.)
Leposoma oswaldoi [sic] — CASTOE et al. 2004
Leposoma osvaldoi — RIBEIRO-JUNIOR & AMARAL 2016
Loxopholis osvaldoi — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016 
DistributionBrazil (Rondonia, Mato Grosso, Amazonas [HR 30: 52], Pará)

Type locality: right bank igarapé Paraiso, km 16, Line 62, Ouro Preto d'Oeste, Rondonia, Brazil.  
TypesHolotype: MPEG 13920, male Paratypes: MPEG 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Leposoma having a moderately large interparietal scale, with diverging lateral margins. Supralabials followed by a scale as large as, to slightly larger than adjacent temporals. Prefrontals form a short to moderately long medial suture, that between frontoparietals with approximately same length or longer. Fourth pair of chinshields reduced. Dorsals hexagonal to quadrangular (pointed posteriorly)or lanceolate; 32-34 along a longitudinal row. Ventrals 20-23. Scales around midbody 26-29. Flanks completely covered by a wide dark band (Avila-Pires 1995).

Description. Gymnophthalmid with SVL of 37 mm and 30 mm i n the two males, 28-30 mm in the females. Head 0.20-0.21 times SVL, 1.4-1.5 times as long as wide, 1.3-1.4 times as wide as high. Snout short, blunt, sloping gently toward top of head. Neck slightly swollen anteriorly. Body cylindrical. Limbs well developed, fore-limbs 0.23-0.29 times SVL, hind limbs 0.35-0.41 times. Tail round in cross section, tapering toward tip, 1.6-1.7 times SVL.
Tongue lanceolate, covered with imbricate, scale-like papillae, with a smooth, bifid tip. Anterior teeth conical, posterior teeth bicuspid.
Rostral approximately trapezoidal, more than twice as wide as high. Frontonasal single, irregularly pentagonal, laterally in contact with nasal and loreal. Prefrontals quadrilateral (the pair resembles a stylised butterfly, wider anteriorly), wider than long or about as wide as long, with a short to moderately long medial suture. Each prefrontal in contact at the sides with loreal and first supraocular. Frontal hexagonal, longer than wide, anteriorly as wide as, to slightly wider than posteriorly; laterally in contact with first, second and third supraoculars. Frontoparietals irregularly pentagonal, about as long as wide, medial suture as long as, to longer than that between prefrontals; laterally in contact with third supraocular, in some specimens touching fourth supraocular. A large interparietal, lateral margins divergent posteriorly. Parietals distinctly shorter and narrower than interparietals. Posterior margins of parietals and interparietal together roughly form a semicircle. Occipitals absent. Four supraoculars, third largest. Four or five supraciliaries. All specimens with one (one side only in one specimen) to three elongate scales completely separating the third, and partially the second and fourth, supraoculars from supraciliaries. Nasal undivided or semidivided, nostril in its anterior part, directed laterally. Loreal rectangular, separated from supralabials by a distinct suture between frenocular and nasal. Frenocular followed by a series of 5-7 suboculars, and 2-4 postoculars. One or two upper postoculars may be keeled; upper one in contact with parietal. Lower eyelid with semi-transparent disc of three or four palpebrals. Six supralabials, posterior largest, fifth below centre of eye; they are followed by a small postsupralabial (as large as, to slightly larger than adjacent temporals). Temporal scales variably polygonal, keeled, subimbricate, larger toward parietals. Ear-opening relatively large, vertically oval, surrounded by small scales, anteriorly forming a finely lobed margin, posteriorly smooth; tympanum almost superficial. Al l dorsal and lateral head scales, except temporals, juxtaposed. Scales on dorsal surface of head with irregularly undulating longitudinal striations; on sides, temporals and in some specimens part of postoculars keeled, other scales smooth.
Mental approximately semicircular. Postmental undivided, heptagonal. Three large pairs of chinshields, plus a fourth very reduced pair; second pair largest, first and second in contact medially and with infralabials; third pair usually separated medially and from infralabials by one scale (in MPEG 13920 in contact with infralabials on one side, in MPEG 12927 separated medially by three scales); fourth pair separated medially by two or three moderately enlarged scales, from infralabialsby three or four such scales. Four infralabials and one postinfralabial in a continuous series, suture between third and fourth infralabials below centre of eye. Most head scales covered with small pits, either forming a peripheral row (posterior dorsal head scales) or scattered on the entire surface (others).
Gulars imbricate, anteriorly squarish, smooth or weakly keeled, posteriad becoming larger, longer than wide, hexagonal to lanceolate, strongly keeled, and mucronate; in 8-9 transverse rows. Collar rather indistinct, with 9-10 scales. Gular fold distinct toward sides. Gulars separated from scales on chin by a row of granules. Scales on nape imbricate, keeled, anteriorly variably polygonal to sub-hexagonal, posteriad grading into dorsals. Scales on sides of neck conical to roughly trihedral, juxtaposed to subimbricate, in approximately vertical rows; posteriorly they may be slightly larger.
Dorsals and laterals imbricate, keeled, mucronate, i n transverse and oblique rows; dorsals hexagonal, on flanks becoming squarish, posteriorly pointed, or lanceolate; 32-34 (33.2 ± 0.8, n= 6) transverse rows of dorsals between interparietal and posterior margin of hind limbs. Ventrals imbricate, keeled, approximately rectangular, posteriorly mucronate; in the largest specimen (MPEG 13920) the median scales are almost smooth and not mucronate; in eight or ten longitudinal, and 20-23 (22.0 ± 1.3, n= 6) transverse rows; keels longitudinally aligned. Scales around midbody 26-29 (27.3 ± 1.0, n= 6), ventrals and laterals resembling each other more the closer they are. Preanal plate with one anterior and five posterior scales. Males with two pre-anal, and five or six femoral pores at each side. Females with two preanal and none or one femoral pores, all of them rather indistinct. Pores i n the centre of a swollen area formed by three or four scales, anterior one largest.
Tail with imbricate, squarish, keeled, shortly mucronate scales, in transverse and longitudinal rows, keels aligned longitudinally. On ventral surface of tail scales are similar, except that they are narrower, roof-shaped, forming low longitudinal ridges.
Scales on limbs mostly rhomboid, keeled, imbricate; on ventral aspect of upper arms smaller, tuberculate, subimbricate; on dorsoposterior aspect of thighs roundish, juxtaposed to subimbricate, mostly small and tuberculate, with some slightly larger and flatter scales posteriorly. Subdigital lamellae medially divided; 9-11 (10.2 ± 0.8, n= 12, 6 specimens) under fourth finger, 13-15 (14.5 ± 1.2, n= 12, 6 specimens) under fourth toe (Avila-Pires 1995).

Color in life: not available (Avila-Pires 1995).

Color in preservative: dorsal region brown. A light dorsolateral stripe from neck to base of tail, paler near midbody. The light stripe may be bordered dorsally by a blackish line. Laterally a similar line may exist, or it borders directly on the dark brown band which covers the flanks completely. Some small light spots may be present on sides of neck and anterior part of body. Ventral region mostly cream. Labials with transverse brown bands, chin and gulars either spotless, or gulars with a few brown spots, or else both areas spotted. Limbs brown on upper side, cream on underside. Tail brown on upper side, darker brown laterally; the pair of dorsolateral stripes which continues from body fades out near base of tail or somewhere along its proximal part; a ventrolateral series of spots, or a faint light line, may be present proximally. Underside of tail cream, sparsely or densely peppered with brown (Avila-Pires 1995). 
CommentProbably also in Bolivia (fide LANGSTROTH 2005). 
EtymologyNamed after Dr. Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha, who collected a large fraction of the specimen in the Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi. 
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