You are here » home advanced search search results Loxopholis percarinatum

Loxopholis percarinatum (MÜLLER, 1923)

Can you confirm these amateur observations of Loxopholis percarinatum?

Add your own observation of
Loxopholis percarinatum »

Find more photos by Google images search: Google images

Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Ecpleopodinae), Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Muller's Tegu
Portuguese: Calango, Lagartixa, Lagarto 
SynonymHylosaurus percarinatus MÜLLER 1923: 146
Leposoma taeniata NOBLE 1923: 303
Hylosaurus muelleri MERTENS 1925: 76
Leposoma percarinatum — BURT & BURT 1931: 349
Leposoma percarinatum — PETERS et al. 1970: 165
Leposoma percarinatum — AVILA-PIRES 1995: 404
Leposoma percarinatum — GORZULA & SEÑARIS 1999
Lepidosoma percarinatum [sic] — KUHN & SCHMIDT 2003
Leposoma percarinatum — CASTOE et al. 2004
Leposoma percarinatum — RIBEIRO-JUNIOR & AMARAL 2016
Loxopholis percarinatum — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016
Loxopholis percarinatum — DIAGO-TORO et al. 2021 
DistributionGuyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Venezuela, SE Colombia,
Brazil (Amapa, Para, Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Rio Negro, Roroima, Rondonia), Bolivia (Pando)

Type locality: Peixeboi, Estado do Pará, Brazil.  
ReproductionParthenogenetic, triploid species. It has been suggested that L. guianense and L. parietale are the parent species of L. percarinatum. Synonymy after Peters et al. 1970. Pellegrino et al. 2011 found a diploid lineage within L. percarinatum, suggesting a species complex. Souza et al. 2015 described bisexual populations. Brunes et al. 2019 described populations of diploid and triploid clones and bisexual populations. 
TypesHolotype: ZSM 140/1911, female 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Unisexual Leposoma having a moderately large interparietal scale, with parallel or slightly diverging lateral margins. Supralabials followed by a scale about as large as adjacent temporals. Prefrontals form a short medial suture, that between frontoparietals longer. Fourth pair ofchinshields reduced. Dorsals mostly from hexagonal (wider posteriorly) middorsally, to rectangular (in oblique position) toward flanks; 35-40 (37.6 ± 1.0) along a longitudinal row. Ventrals 22-28 (24.6 ± 1.7). Scales around midbody 24-27 (26.0 ± 0.7). Flanks with an upper dark stripe 1-3 scales wide, rest of flanks lighter (Avila-Pires 1995).

Description. A n unisexual Gymnophthalmid, maximum SVL 37 mm (Hoogmoed, 1973). Head 0.20-0.24 (n= 30) times SVL, relatively larger in smaller specimens, around 0.20-0.22 in adults; 1.5-1.7 (1.55 ± 0.05, n= 30) times as long as wide; 1.2-1.7 (1.32 ± 0.11, n= 29) times as wide as high. Snout relatively short, blunt, sloping gently toward top of head. Neck slightly swollen anteriorly. Body cylindrical. Limbs well developed, forelimbs 0.26-0.33 (0.29 ± 0.02, n= 30) times SVL, hind limbs 0.37-0.45 (0.42 ± 0.02, n= 30) times. Tail round in cross section, tapering toward tip; 1.4-2.0 (1.71 ± 0.18, n= 13) times SVL.
Tongue lanceolate, covered with imbricate, scale-like papillae, with a smooth, bifid tip. Anterior teeth conical, posterior teeth mostly bicuspid, occasionally tricuspid.
Rostral approximately trapezoidal, more than twice as wide as high. Frontonasal single, irregularly pentagonal, laterally in contact with nasal and loreal. Prefrontals quadrilateral or irregularly pentagonal (the pair resembles a stylised butterfly), widest anteriorly, wider than long or about as wide as long, with a short medial suture; laterally in contact with loreal and first supraocular. Frontal hexagonal, longer than wide, widest anteriorly; the angle formed by the two anterior sides distinctly more acute than that formed by the two posterior sides; laterally in contact with first, second, and occasionally third, supraoculars. Frontoparietals irregularly pentagonal, longer than wide, medial suture longer than that between prefrontals; laterally in contact with third and fourth supraoculars, in some specimens touching second supraoculars. In MPEG 15379 there is an irregular scale between one frontoparietal and interparietal, also touching the other frontoparietal. A large interparietal, lateral margins parallel or divergent posteriorly. Parietals distinctly shorter than interparietal, and as wide as, to slightly narrower than, its anterior part. The posterior margins of parietals and interparietal together roughly form a semicircle. Occipitals absent. Four supraoculars, second and third subequal and larger than the other two. Four to six, mostly five, supraciliaries, first widest. RMNH 25503 and MR 129 on each side with two to three small scales between supraoculars and supraciliaries. Nasal semi-divided; nostril in its anterior part, directed laterally. Loreal rectangular, separated from supralabials by a distinct suture between frenocular and nasal (in both MPEG 14807 and MPEG 15379 loreal and frenocular are fused on one side). Frenocular followed by a series of 5-8 suboculars, and 4-6 postoculars. Postoculars smooth or keeled, uppermost bordering on parietal. Lower eyelid with semitransparent disc of 3-5 palpebrals. Six supralabials, posterior one largest, reaching commissure of mouth; fifth below centre of eye. The scale that follows the sixth supralabial about as large as adjacent temporals. Temporal scales relatively small, roundish to irregularly polygonal, subimbricate, keeled; slightly larger in supratemporal area. Ear-opening relatively large, vertically oval, surrounded by small scales, anteriorly forming a finely lobed margin, posteriorly smooth. Tympanum almost superficial. All dorsal and lateral head scales, except for temporals, juxtaposed. Scales on dorsal surface of head with irregularly undulating longitudinal striations; on sides, temporals and in some specimens postoculars keeled, other scales smooth.
Mental approximately semicircular. Postmental undivided, pentagonal or heptagonal. Three pairs of chinshields, second largest; first and second pairs in contact medially and with infralabials, third pair separated medially by one scale, and separated from infralabials by one or two scales. They are followed posteriorly by several scales of variable size, but none large enough to be considered as a fourth pair of chinshields. Four infralabials, suture between third and fourth below centre of eye; followed by one to three postinfralabials, usually first postinfralabial as large as infralabials, posterior ones smaller. Most head scales covered with small pits, either forming a peripheral row (posterior dorsal head scales) or scattered over the whole surface (others).
Gulars imbricate, anteriorly squarish and weakly keeled, posteriad becoming larger, longer than wide, strongly keeled, and mucronate; in 9-11, mostly 10, transverse rows. Collar rather indistinct, with 9-12 scales. Gular fold distinct toward sides. Gulars separated from scales on chin by a row of granules. Scales on nape irregularly polygonal to subhexagonal, keeled, imbricate, posteriorly grading into dorsals. Scales on sides of neck conical to shortly trihedral, juxtaposed, in approximately vertical rows; at level of collar scales may be slightly larger, flatter and keeled.
Dorsals and scales on flanks imbricate, keeled, mucronate, in transverse and oblique rows; close to middorsal line approximately hexagonal, wider posteriorly, toward sides rectangular (in oblique position) with diagonal keels; 35-40 (37.6 ± 1.0, n= 29) transverse rows of dorsals between interparietal and posterior margin of hind limbs. Ventrals imbricate, in the shape of a heraldic shield, low, broadly or sharply keeled, shortly mucronate; in eight longitudinal rows, and 22-28 (24.6 ± 1.7, n= 29) transverse rows; keels longitudinally aligned. Scales around midbody 24-27 (26.0 ± 0.7, n= 29), ventrals and laterals resembling each other more the closer they are. Preanal plate mostly with one anterior and five posterior, rhomboid scales, occasionally three anterior scales, or four or five elongate scales (no anterior scale). Usually one small preanal pore is present at each side, in the centre of three scales; in some specimens it is absent (or indistinct). Femoral pores absent.
Tail with imbricate, squarish, keeled, shortly mucronate scales, in transverse and longitudinal rows, the keels aligned longitudinally. On the underside scales are similar, except that they are narrower, roof-shaped, forming low longitudinal ridges.
Scales on limbs mostly rhomboid, keeled, imbricate, some mucronate; similar but distinctly smaller on ventral aspect of upper arms; tubercular, juxtaposed, small, on posterior aspect of thighs. Subdigital lamellae medially divided; 10-13 (11.6 ± 0.9, n= 57, 29 specimens) under fourth finger, 15-20 (17.2 ± 1.1, n= 55, 29 specimens) under fourth toe (Avila-Pires 1995).

Color in life: MPEG 16420, in life, with dorsal surface of head blackish, back dark brown with a relatively inconspicuous pale brown dorsolateral stripe; flanks black; ventral surface pinkish. MPEG 16477 was dark brown with a blackish dorsolateral stripe, and a few pale spots on sides of neck; ventral surface whitish, under tail pale brown; tongue anteriorly dark brown, posteriorly white. RMNH 26553, a juvenile, was brown with an orangish dorsolateral stripe from nape to tail (Avila-Pires 1995).

Color in preservative: dorsal region and sides brown. A dorsolateral light stripe on each side from neck to base of tail, fainter near midbody. Medially the light stripe is partially margined by a thin blackish line. Laterally it is bordered by a blackish stripe one to three scales wide (with some scales darker than others). Flanks slightly darker than back; some roundish light spots may be present on sides of neck and above forelimbs. Ventral region cream, spotless except ventrolaterally; labials with transverse dark brown bands. Limbs brown on upper side, cream ventrally. Tail predominantly brown dorsally and laterally; a blackish middorsal stripe is usually present at least proximally, in some specimens continuing to tip of tail as a thin line; the dorso-lateral light stripes coming from the body converge and fade out proximally; at each side there is a blackish longitudinal stripe, which is bordered below by a light line. Ventrally tail predominantly cream, brown peppered (Avila-Pires 1995). 
CommentDistribution: Presence in Bolivia unclear; there seem to be no published specific localities (T. Doan, pers. comm.). 
References
  • Aguayo, R. & Quinteros Muñoz, O. 2008. Leposoma percarinatum (Müller 1923) (Sauria: Gymnophthalmidae). Cuadernos de Herpetología 22 (1): 53 - get paper here
  • Avila-Pires, T.C.S. 1995. Lizards of Brazilian Amazonia (Reptilia: Squamata). Zoologische Verhandelingen 299: 1-706 - get paper here
  • Barrio-Amorós, César L. & Brewer-Carias, Charles 2008. Herpetological results of the 2002 expedition to Sarisari–ama, a tepui in Venezuelan Guayana, with the description of five new species. Zootaxa 1942: 1-68 - get paper here
  • Brunes, T. O., Justino da Silva, A., Marques-Souza, S., Rodrigues, M. T., & Pellegrino, K. C. M. 2019. Not always young: The first vertebrate ancient origin of true parthenogenesis found in an Amazon leaf litter lizard with evidence of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes surfing on the wave of a range expansion. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution - get paper here
  • Burt,C.E. & Burt,M.D. 1931. South American lizards in the collection of the American Museum of Natural History. Bull. Amer. Mus. nat. Hist. 61 (7): 227-395 - get paper here
  • Camacho, A., Brunes, T. O., & Rodrigues, M. T. 2021. Dehydration Alters Behavioral Thermoregulation and the Geography of Climatic Vulnerability in Amazonian Lizards. ResearchSquare - get paper here
  • Castoe, T.A.; Doan, T.M. & Parkinson, C.L. 2004. Data partitions and complex models in Bayesian analysis: the phylogeny of Gymnophthalmid lizards. Systematic Biology 53 (3): 448-469 - get paper here
  • Cole, Charles J.; Carol R. Townsend, Robert P. Reynolds, Ross D. MacCulloch, and Amy Lathrop 2013. Amphibians and reptiles of Guyana, South America: illustrated keys, annotated species accounts, and a biogeographic synopsis. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 125 (4): 317-578; plates: 580-620 - get paper here
  • DIAGO-TORO, MARÍA F.; DANIELA GARCÍA-COBOS, GIOVANNI D. BRIGANTE-LUNA & JUAN D. VÁSQUEZ-RESTREPO. 2021. Fantastic lizards and where to find them: cis-Andean microteiids (Squamata: Alopoglossidae & Gymnophthalmidae) from the Colombian Orinoquia and Amazonia. Zootaxa 5067(3): 377–400. - get paper here
  • Fujita, M.K. & C. Moritz 2009. Origin and Evolution of Parthenogenetic Genomes in Lizards: Current State and Future Directions. Cytogenet Genome Res 127: 261-272 - get paper here
  • Goicoechea, N., Frost, D. R., De la Riva, I., Pellegrino, K. C. M., Sites, J., Rodrigues, M. T. and Padial, J. M. 2016. Molecular systematics of teioid lizards (Teioidea/Gymnophthalmoidea: Squamata) based on the analysis of 48 loci under tree-alignment and similarity-alignment. Cladistics, doi: 10.1111/cla.12150 - get paper here
  • Goldberg, Stephen R., Charles R. Bursey, Laurie J. Vitt and Jeanette Arreola. 2013. Leposoma percarinatum (Muller's tegu) endoparasites. Herpetological Review 44 (2): 325 - get paper here
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Gorzula, Stefan & Senaris, J. Celsa 1999. In: Contribution to the herpetofauna of the Venezuelan Guayana. I: a data base. Scientia Guaianae, Caracas, No. 8 [1998], 269+ pp.; ISBN 980-6020-48-0
  • Hoogmoed, M.S., & Lescure, J. 1975. An annotated checklist of the lizards of French Guiana, mainly based on two recent collections. Zoologische Mededelingen 49(13): 141-172. - get paper here
  • Kuhn, M. & Schmidt, D. 2003. Parthenogenese beim Dunklen Tigerpython (Python molurus bivittatus). Reptilia (Münster) 8 (44): 78-82 - get paper here
  • Laguna, Marcia M.; Miguel T. Rodrigues, Rodrigo M. L. dos Santos, Yatiyo Yonenaga-Yassuda, Teresa C. S. Ávila-Pires, Marinus S. Hoogmoed, and Katia C. M. Pellegrino 2010. Karyotypes of a Cryptic Diploid Form of the Unisexual Leposoma percarinatum (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae) and the Bisexual Leposoma ferreirai from the Lower Rio Negro, Amazonian Brazil. Journal of Herpetology 44 (1): 153–157 - get paper here
  • Langstroth, R.P. 2005. Adiciones probables y confirmadas para la saurofauna boliviana. Kempffiana 1 (1): 101-128
  • Mendes-Pinto, T. J. & S. Marques de Souza 2011. Preliminary assessment of amphibians and reptiles from Floresta Nacional do Trairão, with a new snake record for the Pará state, Brazilian Amazon. Salamandra 47 (4): 199-206 - get paper here
  • Mertens, Robert 1925. Zwei neue Eidechsen aus Venezuela. Senckenbergiana 7 (3/4): 75-78
  • Müller, L. 1923. Neue oder seltene Reptilien und Batrachier der Zoologischen Sammlung des bayrischen Staates. Zool. Anz. 57 (7/8): 145-156 - get paper here
  • Noble, G. K. 1923. New lizards from the Tropical Research Station British Guiana. Zoologica 3: 301—305 - get paper here
  • Oliveira, D.P.; S.M. Souza; L. Frazão; A.P. Almeida; T. Hrbek 2014. Lizards from central Jatapú River, Amazonas, Brazil. Check List 10 (1): 46-53 - get paper here
  • Pellegrino, K.C.M. et al. 2003. Triploid karyotype of Leposoma percarinatum (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae). Journal of Herpetology 37 (1): 197-199 - get paper here
  • Pellegrino, Katia C.M.; Miguel T. Rodrigues, D. James Harris, Yatiyo Yonenaga-Yassuda, Jack W. Sites Jr. 2011. Molecular phylogeny, biogeography and insights into the origin of parthenogenesis in the Neotropical genus Leposoma (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae): Ancient links between the Atlantic Forest and Amazonia. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 446–459 - get paper here
  • Peters, James A. & Donoso-Barros, Roberto 1970. Catalogue of the Neotropical Squamata: Part II. Lizards and Amphisbaenians. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 297: 293 pp. - get paper here
  • Prudente, A.L.C.; F. Magalhães; A. Menks; J.F.M. Sarmento. 2013. Checklist of Lizards of the Juruti, state of Pará, Brazil. Check List 9 (1):42-50 - get paper here
  • RIBEIRO-JÚNIOR, MARCO A. & SILVANA AMARAL 2017. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. IV. Alopoglossidae, Gymnophthalmidae. Zootaxa 4269 (2): 151-196 - get paper here
  • Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A. & Silvana Amaral 2016. Diversity, distribution, and conservation of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) in the Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Biodiversity, 2:1, 195-421 - get paper here
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Rodrigues M T. 1997. A new species of Leposoma (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from the Atlantic forest of Brazil. Herpetologica 53 (3): 383-389. - get paper here
  • Rodrigues, Miguel T. and Teresa C. S. Avila-Pires 2005. New lizard of the genus Leposoma (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae) from the Lower Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brazil. Journal of Herpetology 39 (4): 541-546 - get paper here
  • RODRIGUES, MIGUEL TREFAUT; MAURO TEIXEIRA JR., RENATO SOUSA RECODER, FRANCISCO DAL VECHIO, ROBERTA DAMASCENO & KATIA CRISTINA MACHADO PELLEGRINO 2013. A new species of Leposoma (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) with four fingers from the Atlantic Forest central corridor in Bahia, Brazil. Zootaxa 3635 (4): 459–475 - get paper here
  • Ruibal, R. 1952. Revisionary studies of some South American Teiidae. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 106: 475-529 (477?)-529. - get paper here
  • Señaris, Josefa Celsa; Gilson Rivas y César Molina 2009. Capitulo 4: Anfibios y Reptiles del Parque Nacional Canaima, Venezuela In: Señaris, J. C., D. Lew y C. Lasso. 2009. Biodiversidad del Parque Nacional Canaima: bases técnicas para la conservación de la guayana venezolana. Fundación La Salle de Ciencias Naturales y The nature Conservancy, Caracas, 256 pp. - get paper here
  • Silva, F.M.; A.C. Menks; A.L.C. Prudente; J.C.L. Costa; A.E.M. Travassos; U. Galatti. 2011. Squamate Reptiles from municipality of Barcarena and surroundings, state of Pará, north of Brazil. Check List 7 (3): 220-226 - get paper here
  • Souza, Sergio Marques; Katia C.M. Pellegrino, Pedro M. Sales-Nunes, Mauro Teixeira Junior, Marcelo Gordo, Vinícius T. de Carvalho, Alexandre Almeida, Deyla Paula de Oliveira, Luciana Frazão, Tomas Hrbek, Izeni Pires Farias, and Miguel Trefaut Rodrigu 2015. On the Discovery of Bisexual Populations of the Parthenogenetic Lizard Leposoma percarinatum (Gymnophthalmidae), with Insights into the Origin of Parthenogenesis in Leposoma. South American J. Herp. 10 (2): 121-131. - get paper here
  • Uzzell, Thomas & Barry, John C. 1971. Leposoma percarinatum, a unisexual species related to L. guianense; and Leposoma ioanna, a new species from Pacific Coastal Colombia (Sauria, Teiidae). Postilla (154): 1-39 - get paper here
  • Vaz-Silva, W.; RM Oliveira, AFN Gonzaga, KC Pinto, FC Poli, TM Bilce, M Penhacek, L Wronski, JX Martins, TG Junqueira, LCC, Cesca VY, Guimarães RD. Pinheiro 2015. Contributions to the knowledge of amphibians and reptiles from Volta Grande do Xingu, northern Brazil Braz. J. Biol., 75 (3) (suppl.): S205-S218 - get paper here
  • Vitt, L.; Magnusson, W.E.; Ávila-Pires, T.C. & Lima, A.P. 2008. Guide to the Lizards of Reserva Adolpho Ducke, Central Amazonia. Attema, Manaus, 180 pp.
 
External links  
Is it interesting? Share with others:

As link to this species use URL address:

https://reptile-database.reptarium.cz/species?genus=Loxopholis&species=percarinatum

without field 'search_param'. Field 'search_param' is used for browsing search result.



Please submit feedback about this entry to the curator