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Loxopholis southi (RUTHVEN & GAIGE, 1924)

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Cercosaurinae s.l., Ecpleopodinae), Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesLoxopholis southi southi (RUTHVEN & GAIGE 1924)
Loxopholis southi orientalis TAYLOR 1955 
Common NamesE: Northern Spectacled Lizard 
SynonymLeposoma southi RUTHVEN & GAIGE 1924
Leposoma southi — RUIBAL 1952: 482
Leposoma southi — KÖHLER 2000: 103
Loxopholis southi — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016

Loxopholis southi southi (RUTHVEN & GAIGE 1924)
Leposoma southi RUTHVEN & GAIGE 1924
Leposoma bisecta TAYLOR 1949
Leposoma southi southi — TAYLOR 1955
Leposoma southi southi — PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970: 166
Loxopholis southi southi — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016 (by implication)

Loxopholis southi orientalis (TAYLOR 1955)
Leposoma southi orientalis TAYLOR 1955: 546
Leposoma southi orientalis — PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970: 166
Loxopholis southi orientalis — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016 (by implication) 
DistributionS Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia (Chocó, Risaralda, Valle
del Cauca, Antioquia)

orientalis: Costa Rica (Limón); Type locality: Volio, Limón Province, Costa Rica.

Type locality: Progreso, Chiriquí Province, Panama.  
TypesHolotype: UMMZ 58065
Holotype: KU 36124, male, collected by E. H. Taylor, June 24, 1954 [orientalis] 
DiagnosisDescription. Frontonasal longitudinally divided; prefrontals in broad contact medially; frontal long and hexagonal; frontoparietals slightly larger than prefrontals; interparietal longer than parietals, but no wider than the parietals at their greatest width. All dorsal head plates with marked longitudinal striations. Nostril in a divided nasal, the suture of the nasal passing through or posterior to the nostril; superciliaries 4; suboculars 5-7; palpebrals 2-4; temporal scales keeled; upper labials 6, the sixth being the largest and bearing a longitudinal keel upon its lower surface; lower labials 5-6; single postmental followed by 2 pairs of postmentals in contact medially, the second pair of postmentals the largest; a third pair of postmentals not in contact medially nor with the lower labials; the pregulars may be keeled, but are quadrangular and non-imbricate ; side of neck covered with large conical scales. Dorsals leaf-shaped, broad; laterals like the dorsals. Ventrals keeled, imbricate and mucronate, more hexagonal in shape than the dorsals and in longitudinal and transverse rows. Gular scales keeled, imbricate and in transverse and diagonal rows. A collar is present but is indistinct. Caudals and subcaudals keeled and in longitudinal and transverse rows. Scales of the limbs keeled and imbricate. Inner toe of forelimb reduced, with only 2 segments. Posterior preanals consist of a small median scale bordered by 2 larger scales on each side. The anterior preanal is a single large median scale or 3 median scales. All preanal scales keeled. Males with 2 preanal pores and 4/4 femoral pores; females with 2 preanal pores only (Ruibal 1952).

Scale counts. Midbody, 20-25; transverse dorsal rows, 28-33; transverse ventral rows, 20-24; gulars, 7-10 (Ruibal 1952).

Color. Overall color dull-brown. Top of head a darker brown. Laterally from the head to the proximal portion of the tail a darker brown than the dorsum. Lower labials heavily pigmented. White scales or ocelli may be present on the side of the neck and above the forelimb. The males tend to be more heavily pigmented than the females. Underside of head, gular region and abdomen cream colored and spotless, though marginal spotting of the postmentals may be present. Venter of tail with dark blotches (Ruibal 1952). 
CommentSynonymy mostly after RUIBAL 1952. Burt and Burt (1931) incorrectly placed southi in the synonymy of rugiceps (dispar). 
Etymologynamed after John Glover South. 
  • Arias, Erick; Federico Bolaños 2014. A checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of San Isidro de Dota, Reserva Forestal Los Santos, Costa Rica. Check List 10 (4): 870-877 - get paper here
  • Castro-Herrera, F. & Vargas-Salinas, F. 2008. Anfibios y reptiles en el departamento del Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Biota Colombiana 9 (2): 251 - 277 - get paper here
  • CASTRO-HERRERA, FERNANDO; ANYELET VALENCIA-AGUILAR, DIEGO VILLAQUIRAN-Martínez 2012. Diversidad de Anfibios y Reptiles del Parque Nacional Natural Isla Gorgona. Universidad del Valle, Santiago de Cali, Valle del Cauca, 112 pp. - get paper here
  • Cortés Gómez, Angela María; Anyelet Valencia Aguilar, Diana Marcela Torres Domínguez, Lina María García Calderón, Diego Fernando Villaquirán Martínez, Andrea del Pilar Cáceres Franco, Fernando Castro Herrera 2010. Guía de los anfibios y reptiles. Área en conservación de la microcuenca Quebrada Pericos. [Valle de Cauca, Colombia]. Corporación Autónoma Regional del Valle del Cauca, Santiago de Cali: CVC, 37 pp. - get paper here
  • DE PLECKER, R 2020. Loxopholis southi (Northern Rugose Lizard). Predation. Herpetological Review. 51:601-602.
  • Goicoechea, N., Frost, D. R., De la Riva, I., Pellegrino, K. C. M., Sites, J., Rodrigues, M. T. and Padial, J. M. 2016. Molecular systematics of teioid lizards (Teioidea/Gymnophthalmoidea: Squamata) based on the analysis of 48 loci under tree-alignment and similarity-alignment. Cladistics, doi: 10.1111/cla.12150 - get paper here
  • Goldberg, Stephen R. 2008. Note on Reproduction of two species of microteiid lizards, Leposoma southi and Ptychoglossus plicatus (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae). Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 44 (2): 42-45 - get paper here
  • Gutiérrez-C., P.D. & Arredondo-S., J.C. 2007. Leposoma southi Ruthvein & Gaige, 1924, a new record to the fauna of Antioquia (Colombia). Herpetozoa 20: 77-79 - get paper here
  • Köhler, G. 2000. Reptilien und Amphibien Mittelamerikas, Bd 1: Krokodile, Schildkröten, Echsen. Herpeton Verlag, Offenbach, 158 pp.
  • Köhler, G. 2008. Reptiles of Central America. 2nd Ed. Herpeton-Verlag, 400 pp.
  • Ortleb, Edward; Heatwole, Harold 1965. Comments on some Panamanian lizards with a key to the species from Barro Colorado Island, C.Z. and vicinity. Carib. J. Sci. 5 (3-4):141-147.
  • Pauwels, Olivier S. G. and Richard Wahlgren 2012. Beolens Bo, Watkins Michael, and Grayson Michael (2011), The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. Russ. J. Herpetol. 19 (4): 352 – 355 - get paper here
  • Peters, James A. & Donoso-Barros, Roberto 1970. Catalogue of the Neotropical Squamata: Part II. Lizards and Amphisbaenians. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 297: 293 pp. - get paper here
  • Restrepo A, Molina-Zuluaga C, Hurtado JP, Marín CM, Daza JM 2017. Amphibians and reptiles from two localities in the northern Andes of Colombia. Check List 13 (4): 203-237 - get paper here
  • Ríos, E.E.; C.F. Hurtado P., J.T. Rengifo M., and F. Castro Herrera. 2011. LAGARTOS EN COMUNIDADES NATURALES DE DOS LOCALIDADES EN LA REGIÓN DEL CHOCÓ DE COLOMBIA. Herpetotropicos 5 (2): 85-92 - get paper here
  • Rodrigues M T. 1997. A new species of Leposoma (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from the Atlantic forest of Brazil. Herpetologica 53 (3): 383-389. - get paper here
  • Rodrigues, Miguel T. and Teresa C. S. Avila-Pires 2005. New lizard of the genus Leposoma (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae) from the Lower Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brazil. Journal of Herpetology 39 (4): 541-546 - get paper here
  • RODRIGUES, MIGUEL TREFAUT; MAURO TEIXEIRA JR., RENATO SOUSA RECODER, FRANCISCO DAL VECHIO, ROBERTA DAMASCENO & KATIA CRISTINA MACHADO PELLEGRINO 2013. A new species of Leposoma (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) with four fingers from the Atlantic Forest central corridor in Bahia, Brazil. Zootaxa 3635 (4): 459–475 - get paper here
  • Ruibal, R. 1952. Revisionary studies of some South American Teiidae. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 106: 475-529 (477?)-529. - get paper here
  • Ruthven, Alexander G. & Gaige, Helen T. 1924. A new Leposoma from Panama. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (147): 1-3 - get paper here
  • Savage, J.M. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna Between Two Continents, Between Two Seas. University of Chicago Press, 934 pp. [review in Copeia 2003 (1): 205]
  • Scott, N.J. 1976. The abundance and diversity of the herpetofaunas of tropical forest litter. Biotropica 8 (1): 41-58 - get paper here
  • Taylor, E. H. 1956. A review of the lizards of Costa Rica. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 38 (part 1): 3-322 - get paper here
  • Taylor,E.H. 1949. Two new teiid lizards from Costa Rica. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 33 (5): 271-278. - get paper here
  • Taylor,E.H. 1955. Additions to the known herpetological fauna of Costa Rica with comments on other species. No. II. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 37: 499-575. - get paper here
  • Uzzell, Thomas & Barry, John C. 1971. Leposoma percarinatum, a unisexual species related to L. guianense; and Leposoma ioanna, a new species from Pacific Coastal Colombia (Sauria, Teiidae). Postilla (154): 1-39 - get paper here
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