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Lygosoma peninsulare GRISMER, QUAH, DUZULKAFLY & YAMBUN, 2018

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Lygosominae, Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common Names 
SynonymLygosoma peninsulare GRISMER, QUAH, DUZULKAFLY & YAMBUN 2018
Lygosoma Bampfyldii — BOULENGER 1900: 192 (in part)
Lygosoma bampfyldii — BOULENGER 1912: 93 (in part)
Lygosoma bampfyldei — DE ROOIJ 1915: 263 (in part)
Lygosoma bampfyldii — SMITH 1930: 36 (in part).
Riopa bampfyldei — SMITH 1937: 228
Mochlus bampfyledei — MITTLEMAN 1952: 22
Lygosoma bampfyldei — GREER 1977: 915
Lygosoma bampfyldei — WELCH et al. 1990: 83
Riopa bampfyldii — DENZER & MANTHEY 1991: 317
Riopa bampfyldei — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 275 (in part)
Riopa bampfyldei — CHAN-ARD et al. 1999: 27 (in part)
Lygosoma bampfyldei — DAS & YAKOOB 2007: 78
Lygosoma bampfyldei — GRISMER 2008: 31
Lygosoma bampfyldei — DAS 2010: 238 (in part)
Lygosoma bampfyldei — GRISMER 2011: 613 (in part)
Lygosoma peninsularae — GRISMER & QUAH 2019 (in error) 
DistributionPeninsular Malaysia (Kelantan)

Type locality: 13.5 km east of Jeli, Kelantan, Peninsular Malaysia (5° 44’ 31” N; 101° 57’ 39” E; about 440 m ASL).  
TypesHolotype: LSUHC 13857, Adult male, collected by Zaharil Dzulkafly on 30 August 2016. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Lygosoma peninsulare sp. nov. can be differentiated from all other Lygosoma by having the combination of a relatively large (SVL = 119 mm) slender body (PEC/SVL = 0.12–0.13); seven supralabials; eight infralabials; midline contact of the supranasals; prefrontals not in contact; frontoparietal contacting three supraoculars; postinterparietal absent; seven superciliaries; two or three postsuboculars, the first being small; one primary and three secondary and tertiary temporals; three nuchal scales; a shallow postnasal groove extending from the nasal scale to below the anterior portion of the eye and lying below the anterior loreals and lower preocular and above the second and third supralabials; scaly lower eyelid, no window; 41 midbody scale rows; 87 paravertebral scale rows; 99 ventral scale rows; 29 caudal scale rows at the tenth subcaudal; seven large precloacal scales; strongly keeled subdigital finger lamellae, 11 lamellae on third finger; enlarged, fringe-like, keeled subdigital toe lamellae, 16 lamellae on fourth toe; raised, rectangular, large palmar scales numbering five across the base of the palm; head pattern consisting of a dark, broken frontal band and a continuous occipital band separated by a diffuse yellowish band; dark occipital band confluent with dark color of dorsum and tail; sides of tail bright red-orange. These characters are scored across all species in the L. bampfyldei group in Table 2.

Comparisons. Lygosoma peninsulare sp. nov. differs from all other species of the bampfyldei group in having a shallow vs. a deep postnasal groove; 87 vs 81–85 (L. bamphfyldei) or 95 (L. schneideri) or 98 (L. kinabatanganensis sp. nov.) paravertebral scales; strongly keeled vs smooth to weakly keeled finger lamellae; enlarged fringe-like vs. keeled subdigital lamellae; sharply raised vs. low and rounded palmar scales; five vs. seven or eight scales across the base of the palm; an incomplete vs. complete frontal band; occipital band confluent vs. not confluent with the color of dorsum; and the sides of tail being bright red-orange vs. olive or grey. Other characters differentially separating L. peninsulare sp. nov. from various combinations of the other species are listed in Table 2.
CommentHabitat: hill dipterocarp forest, leaf litter microhabitat amongst granite boulders. Its elongate body and reduced limbs indicate that this is a semi-fossorial to fossorial species 
EtymologyThe genus Lygosoma is of neutral gender and the specific epithet, peninsulare, is the neutral form of the Latin adjective peninsularis which translates to the English adjective “peninsular”. The specific epithet refers to this species being endemic to the Thai-Malay Peninsula. 
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1900. Description of new batrachians and reptiles from Larut Hills, Perak. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) 7: 186-193. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1912. A vertebrate fauna of the Malay Peninsula from the Isthmus of Kra to Singapore incl. the adjacent islands. Reptilia and Amphibia. London (Taylor & Francis), xiii + 298 S. - get paper here
  • Chan-ard,T.; Grossmann,W.; Gumprecht,A. & Schulz,K. D. 1999. Amphibians and reptiles of peninsular Malaysia and Thailand - an illustrated checklist [bilingual English and German]. Bushmaster Publications, Würselen, Gemany, 240 pp. [book review in Russ. J Herp. 7: 87] - get paper here
  • Das, I. 2010. A Field Guide to the Reptiles of Southeast Asia. New Holland, London. 376 pp. [book review in Sauria 33 (3): 51, and Russ. J. Herp. 18: 325] - get paper here
  • Das, I. & Yaakob, N. 2007. Status of knowledge of the Malaysian herpetofauna. In Status of biological diversity in Malaysia & threat assessment of plant species in Malaysia. in: L. S. L. Chua, L. G. Kirton & L. G. Saw (eds.), Status of biological diversity in Malaysia & threat assessment of plant species in Malaysia. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kepong, pp. 31-81
  • de Rooij, N. de 1915. The Reptiles of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. I. Lacertilia, Chelonia, Emydosauria. Leiden (E. J. Brill), xiv + 384 pp. - get paper here
  • Denzer, W. & MANTHEY, U. 1991. A nominal checklist of the lizards inhabiting Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. Raffles Bull. Zool., 39(2): 309-322 - get paper here
  • Greer, A.E. 1977. The systematics and evolutionary relationships of the scincid lizard genus Lygosoma. Journal of Natural History 11: 515-540. - get paper here
  • Grismer, L. Lee 2008. A revised and updated checklist of the lizards of Peninsular Malaysia. Zootaxa 1860: 28–34 - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; & EVAN S. H. QUAH 2019. An updated and annotated checklist of the lizards of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, and their adjacent archipelagos. Zootaxa 4545 (2): 230–248 - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; EVAN S. H. QUAH, ZAHARIL DUZULKAFLY & PAUL YAMBUN 2018. On the taxonomy of Lygosoma bampfyldei Bartlett, 1895 (Squamata: Scincidae) with descriptions of new species from Borneo and Peninsular Malaysia and the resurrection of Lygosoma schneideri Werner, 1900. Zootaxa 4438 (3): 528–550 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L. 2011. Lizards of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and their adjacent archipelagos. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 728 pp. [review in Herp. Rev. 43: 155] - get paper here
  • Manthey, U. & Grossmann, W. 1997. Amphibien & Reptilien Südostasiens. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 512 pp. - get paper here
  • Mittleman, M.B. 1952. A generic synopsis of the Lizards of the Subfamily Lygosominae. Smithson. misc. Collns, 117: 1-35. - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1930. The Reptilia and Amphibia of the Malay Peninsula fromt he Isthmus of Kra to Singapore, including the adjacent Islands. A Supplement to G.A. Boulenger’s Reptilia and Batrachia 1912. Bull. Raffles Mus. No. 3: 1-149
  • Smith, M.A. 1937. A review of the genus Lygosoma (Scincidae: Reptilia) and its allies. Records of the Indian Museum 39 (3): 213-234
  • Welch, K.R.G., Cooke, P.S., & Wright, A.S. 1990. Lizards of the Orient: a checklist. Robert E. Krieger Pub. Co., Malabar, FL 162 pp.
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