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Marisora syntoma MCCRANIE, MATTHEWS & HEDGES, 2020

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Mabuyinae (Mabuyini), Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Tehuantepec Skink 
SynonymMarisora syntoma MCCRANIE, MATTHEWS & HEDGES 2020
Mabuia agilis — GÜNTHER 1885: 33 (in part)
Mabuia agilis — GADOW 1905: 195 (in part).
Mabuya mabouya mabouya — HARTWEG & OLIVER 1940: 17
Mabuya mabouya mabouya — SMITH & LANGEBARTEL 1949: 410
Mabuya mabouya mabouya — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 156 (in part)
Mabuya mabouya alliacea — BURGER 1952: 186 (in part)
Mabuya mabouya alliacea — CHRAPLIWY & FUGLER 1955: 125.
Mabuya brachypoda — WEBB 1958: 1304 (in part)
Mabuya brachypoda — HOLMAN 1964: 49.
Mabuya unimarginata — MIRALLES et al. 2009: 602 (in part)
Mabuya unimarginata — MIRALLES & CARRANZA 2010: 861 (in part).
Marisora brachypoda — HEDGES & CONN 2012: 244 (in part)
Marisora brachypoda — LARA-RESENDIZ et al. 2017: 226 (in part)
Mabuya unimarginata complex — PINTO-SÁNCHEZ et al. 2015: 204 (in part) 
DistributionMexico (Oaxaca, Chiapas), elevation 30-1100 m

Type locality: Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, Mexico, 16°19’21.72”N, 95°14’32.39”W, 35 m elevation  
TypesHolotype. USNM 113677, an adult male, collected by Hobart M. Smith, 4 January 1940.
Paratypes (14). Mexico—Oaxaca: USNM 113679–80, 113685, adult males, USNM 113681–83, 113692, 113694, adult females, all from the type locality; USNM 46684, adult male, from Santa Efigenia; USNM 113701, 113705, adult males, USNM 113702–03, 113707, adult females, all from Tres Cruces (NW of Tehuantepec).
Additional specimens: USNM 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Marisora syntoma sp. nov. is a relatively small species of Marisora characterized (data from 7 males, 8 females in type series) by (1) maximum known SVL in males 68.5 mm; (2) maximum known SVL in females 75.0 mm; (3) SW 3.0–4.6% SVL in males, 3.0–4.6% in females; (4) HL 19.3–22.0% SVL in males, 16.3– 21.8% in females; (5) HW 10.4–13.1% SVL in males, 10.1–13.1% in females; (6) EAL 0.8–2.0% SVL in males, 0.7–1.9% SVL in females; (7) Toe IV length 8.7–10.4% SVL in males, 7.4–11.4% in females; (8) prefrontals one per side; (9) supraoculars four per side; (10) supraciliaries four per side in 96.7%, five in 3.3%; (11) frontoparietals one per side; (12) fifth supralabial below orbit; (13) nuchal rows one per side; (14) dorsals 53–57 (55.6 ± 1.5) in males, 53–58 (55.4 ± 1.8) in females; (15) ventrals 56–60 (57.4 ± 2.3) in males, 57–63 (59.8 ± 2.0) in females; (16) dorsals + ventrals 108–117 (113.0 ± 3.4) in males, 113–119 (115.1 ± 2.5) in females; (17) midbody scale rows 28 in 80.0%, 26 in 13.3%, 27 in 6.7%; (18) Finger IV lamellae 9–12 (10.4 ± 1.0) per side in males, 9–13 (10.6 ± 1.6) in females; (19) Toe IV lamellae 12–14 (13.3 ± 0.8) per side in males, 13–14 (13.5 ± 0.5) in females; (20) Finger IV + Toe IV lamellae 22–26 (23.7 ± 1.4) on one side in males, 22–27 (24.1 ± 1.8) in females; (21) supranasals in medial contact in 66.7%, not in medial contact in 33.3%, thus frontonasal in contact with rostral in 33.3%; (22) prefrontals almost always not in contact (93.3%), but point contact made in 6.7%; (23) supraocular 1-frontal contact absent in 86.6%, contact made in 6.7%, point contact made in 6.7%; (24) parietals in contact posterior to interparietal; (25) pale middorsal stripe absent; (26) dark dorsolateral stripe absent and a pale dorsolateral stripe at best indistinct; (27) dark brown lateral stripe present; (28) distinct pale lateral stripe present; (29) palms and soles pale brown or cream; (30) total lamellae for five fingers 37–44 (40.0 ± 2.4) in males, 39–46 (41.4 ± 2.3) in females; (31) total lamellae for five toes 41–56 (48.0 ± 4.4) in males, 42–54 (49.5 ± 4.4) in females. In addition, this is a short-limbed species with a FLL + HLL/SVL 47.8–58.3% in males, 42.3–54.3% in females, and has two chinshields contacting infralabials (Table 3).
Marisora syntoma sp. nov. is a member of the M. alliacea group and is most closely related to M. urtica sp. nov. (Fig. 3). Marisora syntoma differs from all other Mexican and Central American species of Marisora, except M. aquilonaria, in being a smaller species with a maximum known SVL of 68.5 mm in males and 75.0 mm in females (versus 77.0 mm in males of M. urtica [female M. urtica unknown], 81.0 mm in males and 89.0 mm in females of M. brachypoda), 80.9 mm in males and 92.5 mm in females of M. lineola, 76.1 mm in males and 90.2 in females of M. roatanae, 85.7 mm in males and 95.1 mm in females of M. magnacornae, 79.0 mm in males and 90.3 mm in females of M. alliacea, and 84.0 mm in males and 90.3 mm in females of M. unimarginta). Marisora syntoma differs further from M. urtica in having two chinshields contacting infralabials (versus one chinshield contacting an infralabial in M. urtica) and in lacking brown dorsal lines (versus 2–3 fairly distinct to indistinct brown dorsal lines, especially anteriorly, in M. urtica). Marisora syntoma differs further from M. magnacornae in having shorter limbs (FLL + HLL/SVL 47.8–58.3% in males and 42.3–54.3% in females versus 60.8–68.7% in males and 55.8–68.0% in females of M. magnacornae) and in lacking distinct dorsolateral stripes (versus pale and dark dorsolateral stripes normally present in M. magnacornae). Marisora syntoma is further distinguished from M. alliacea in having shorter limbs (FLL + HLL/SVL 47.8–58.3% in males and 42.3–54.3% in females versus 62.5–74.6% and 58.0–67.6%, respectively in M. alliacea), in lacking distinct dorsolateral and dorsal stripes (versus pale and dark dorsolateral stripes and dark brown dorsal stripes present in M. alliacea), and in having pale brown to cream palms and soles (versus palms and soles dark brown to black in M. alliacea). Marisora syntoma can be distinguished from M. aquilonaria by having 4 supraciliaries per side in 96.7% (versus 5 supraciliaries in 81.3% in M. aquilonaria) and having 22–26, x = 23.7 ± 1.4 combined Finger IV and Toe IV lamellae per side in males and 22–27, x = 24.1 ± 1.8 in females (versus 26–29, x = 27.1 ± 1.0 in males and 25–30, x = 26.3 ± 1.6 in females in M. aquilonaria). Marisora syntoma is further distinguished from M. brachypoda by having 28 scales around midbody in 80.0% or 26–27 in 20% versus 28 scales around midbody in 35.7%, 30 in 35.7%, or 29 or 31–32 in remainder in M. brachypoda). Marisora syntoma is further distinguished from M. lineola by lacking dark brown dorsolateral stripes or dashes and having 56–60, 57.4 ± 2.3 ventrals in males (versus those stripes or dashes present and male ventrals 61–69, 63.9, ± 2.6 in M. lineola). Marisora syntoma also differs from M. roatanae in having pale palms and soles and 26–28 scales around midbody with 28 in 80% (versus distinct dark brown to nearly black soles and palms almost always present and 30–32 scales around midbody in 76.7% and 28 in only 17.9% in M. roatanae). Marisora syntoma differs from the extralimital M. pergravis by having fewer ventrals (56–63 in both sexes combined versus 70–73 in M. pergravis), fewer dorsals (53–58 versus 62–63 in M. pergravis). Marisora syntoma has sometimes been confused with M. unimarginata of the M. unimarginata group, but in addition to the size differences discussed above, differs in lacking distinct dark dorsal spots (versus distinct dark dorsal spots present in M. unimarginata) and having the fifth supralabial below the orbit (versus sixth in 81.9% in M. unimarginata). Marisora syntoma is known to differ from the extralimital and poorly known M. berengerae (incomplete morphological data available from the literature only from the unsexed holotype) of the M. unimarginata group only from genetic data; furthermore a huge geographical hiatus inhabited by other species of Marisora occurs between those two species. 
CommentSynonymy: after MCCRANIE et al. 2020, see there for references.

Distribution: see map in McCranie et al. 2020: 317 (Fig. 6). 
EtymologyThe specific name syntoma, a noun in apposition, is taken from the Greek syntomos, meaning shortened. The name is used in reference to the short limbs found in this species. 
  • Aguilar-López JL, Luría-Manzano R, Pineda E, Canseco-Márquez L 2021. Selva Zoque, Mexico: an important Mesoamerican tropical region for reptile species diversity and conservation. ZooKeys 1054: 127-153 - get paper here
  • Burger, W.L. 1952. Notes on the Latin American skink, Mabuya mabouya. Copeia 1952 (3): 185-187. - get paper here
  • Chrapliwy, Pete S.;Fugler, Charles M. 1955. Amphibians and reptiles collected in Mexico in the summer of 1953. Herpetologica 11: 121-128 - get paper here
  • Gadow, H. 1905. The distribution of Mexican amphibians and reptiles. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1905 (2): 191-244 - get paper here
  • Günther, A. C. L. G. 1885. Reptilia and Batrachia. Biologia Centrali-Américana. Taylor, & Francis, London, 326 pp. [published in parts from 1885-1902; reprint by the SSAR 1987] - get paper here
  • Hartweg, N., & OLIVER, J. A. 1940. A contribution to the herpetology of the isthmus of Tehuantepec. IV. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan No. 47: 1-31 - get paper here
  • Hedges, S.B. & Conn, C.E. 2012. A new skink fauna from Caribbean islands (Squamata, Mabuyidae, Mabuyinae). Zootaxa 3288: 1–244 - get paper here
  • Holman, J. A. 1964. New and interesting amphibians and reptiles from Guerrero and Oaxaca, Mexico. Herpetologica 20 (1): 48-54 - get paper here
  • Lara-Resendiz, R. A., V. H. Jimenez-Arcos, R. Palacios, R. Santos-Bibiano, A. H. Díaz de la Vega-Pérez, and B. C. Larraín-Barrios. 2017. New records, distributional range, and notes on Marisora brachypoda (Squamata: Mabuyidae) in Mexico. Mesoamerican Herpetology 4(1): 224–231 - get paper here
  • MCCRANIE, JAMES R.; AMY J. MATTHEWS, S. BLAIR HEDGES 2020. A morphological and molecular revision of lizards of the genus Marisora Hedges & Conn (Squamata: Mabuyidae) from Central America and Mexico, with descriptions of four new species. Zootaxa 4763 (3): 301–353 - get paper here
  • Miralles, A.; S. Carranza 2010. Systematics and biogeography of the Neotropical genus Mabuya, with special emphasis on the Amazonian skink Mabuya nigropunctata (Reptilia, Scincidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 54 (3): 857-869 - get paper here
  • MIRALLES, AURÉLIEN; GILSON RIVAS FUENMAYOR, CÉLINE BONILLO, WALTER E. SCHARGEL, TITO BARROS, JUAN E. GARCÍA-PEREZ, CÉSAR L. BARRIO-AMORÓS 2009. Molecular systematics of Caribbean skinks of the genus Mabuya (Reptilia, Scincidae), with descriptions of two new species from Venezuela. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 156 (3): 598-616 - get paper here
  • Pinto-Sánchez, Nelsy Rocío; Martha L. Calderón-Espinosa, Aurelien Miralles, Andrew J. Crawford, Martha Patricia Ramírez-Pinilla 2015. Molecular phylogenetics and biogeography of the Neotropical skink genus Mabuya Fitzinger (Squamata: Scincidae) with emphasis on Colombian populations. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2015.07.016 - get paper here
  • Smith, H. M., & LANGEBARTEL, D. A. 1949. Notes on a collection of reptiles and amphibians from the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. J. Washington Acad. Sci. 39: 409-416.
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