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Masticophis bilineatus (JAN, 1863)

IUCN Red List - Masticophis bilineatus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Sonoran Whipsnake
Ajo Mountain Whipsnake [lineolatus]
S: Látigo de Sonora 
SynonymMasticophis bilineatus JAN 1863: 65
Bascanium semilineatum COPE 1892 (fide WALLACH)
Masticophis semilineatus — TAYLOR 1938: 491
Masticophis bilineatus lineolatus HENSLEY 1950: 270
Masticophis bilineatus bilineatus — ZWEIFEL & NORRIS 1955
Masticophis bilineatus bilineatus — LEWIS 1956
Masticophis bilineatus lineolatus — STEBBINS 1985: 184
Masticophis bilineatus — STEBBINS 1985: 183
Masticophis bilineatus — LINER 1994
Masticophis lineolatus — LINER 1994
Masticophis bilineatus — MATTISON 1995: 109
Coluber lineolatus — UTIGER et al. 2005 (by implication)
Coluber bilineatus — UTIGER et al. 2005 (by implication)
Masticophis bilineatus — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009
Coluber bilineatus — CROTHER et al. 2012
Masticophis bilineatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 418
Masticophis bilineatus — O’CONNELL et al. 2017
Masticophis bilineatus — MYERS et al. 2017 
DistributionUSA (Arizona, SW New Mexico),
Mexico (Sonora, W Chihuahua, Sinaloa, Aguascalientes, Jalisco, Nayarit, Durango)

slevini: Isla San Esteban; Type locality: San Esteban Island, Gulf of California, Sonora, Mexico.

lineolatus [synonym]: USA (Arizona: Ajo Mountains), Mexico; Type locality: USA: 12.9 S and 5 mi E North Branch of Alamo Canyon, via Rt. 85, Pima County, Arizona.  
TypesHolotype: MTD 15523 (= MTKD)
Holotype: SDNHM = SDSNH 3826; paratype SDNHM = SDSNH 41571 [slevini]
Holotype: SDNHM = SDSNH 43402; INHS (= UIMNH) 5611; Max Hensley; May 15, 1949 [fide PHILLIPS 2003 [lineolatus]]
Syntype: USNM 8434, 1981 [Bascanium semilineatum] 
CommentSubspecies: GRISMER 1999 elevated slevini to full (evolutionary) species status. CAMPER & DIXON (1994) didn’t recognize any subspecies of M. bilineatus. Masticophis bilineatus lineolatus has been elevated to full species status and more recently considered as a synonym of C. bilineatus (e.g. Crother et al. 2012). C. lineolatus is not listed by CROTHER 2000 nor by Liner 2007.

Illustration (from Günther 1902) in Herp. Bull 72: 25.

Habitat: partly arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018). 
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  • Bezy, Robert L. and Charles J. Cole 2014. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Madrean Archipelago of Arizona and New Mexico. American Museum Novitates (3810): 1-24 - get paper here
  • Camper J D. 1996. Masticophis bilineatus. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (637): 1-4. - get paper here
  • Camper J D. Dixon J R. 1994. Geographic variation and systematics of the striped whipsnakes (Masticophis taeniatus complex; Reptilia: Serpentes: Colubridae). Annals of the Carnegie Museum 63 (1): 1-48.
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  • Cope, E.D. 1866. Fourth contribution lo the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Acad. nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 18: 123-132 - get paper here
  • Cowles, J 2018. Masticophis bilineatus (Sonoran Whipsnake) and Oxybelis aeneus (Brown Vinesnake) Diet and Predation. Herpetological Review 49 (2): 345-346 - get paper here
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