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Mauremys annamensis (SIEBENROCK, 1903)

IUCN Red List - Mauremys annamensis - Critically Endangered, CR

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Higher TaxaGeoemydidae (Geoemydinae), Testudinoidea, Testudines (turtles)
Common NamesE: Annam Leaf Turtle
G: Vietnamesische Sumpfschildkröte 
SynonymCyclemys annamensis SIEBENROCK 1903
Annamemys merkleni BOURRET 1939
Annamemys annamensis — SAVAGE 1953
Annamemys mekleni — TIEN 1957 (ex errore)
Annamemys annamensis — KING & BURKE 1989
Mauremys annamensis — IVERSON & MCCORD 1994
Ocadia glyphistoma MCCORD & IVERSON 1994 (part.)
Annamemys annamensis — OBST 2003: 17
Mauremys annamensis — FELDHAM & PARHAM 2004
Mauremys annamensis — TTWG 2014
Mauremys annamensis — TTWG 2021 
DistributionC Vietnam

Type locality: Phuc-Son (southwest of Tourane, central Annam), Vietnam.

glyphistoma: SW China (SW Guangxi), NE Vietnam  
Reproductionoviparous. Exhibits temperature‐dependent sex determination (TSD) fide Cornejo-Páramo et al. 2020 (and references therein). 
TypesHolotype: NMW
Lectotype: CAS 9142, designated by Savage, 1953. Sent by Dr. Rene Bourret [Annamemys merkleni]
CommentRelegation of this taxon to the synonymy of Mauremys nigricans by McDowell (1964) was incorrect according to Pritchard (1979:191). McDowell considered only the juveniles, and the adults of Mauremys nigricans and Annamemys annamensis are very different. Although the specific distinctness of this form has been discussed, the generic status has not. See Bourret (1941:145 and 175), and Savage (1953).

Hybridization: Viable (though not really healthy) hybrids between Mauremys annamensis and Cuora amboinensis kamaroma have been described by FRITZ & MENDAU (2002). O. glyphistoma is a hybrid between Ocadia sinensis and Mauremys annamensis (DALTON 2003). A specimen of O. glyphistoma studied by SPINKS et al. (2004) was most similar morphologically to O. sinensis yet falls on a short branch in the clade with Mauremys by DNA sequence data, a result that is consistent with it being a hybrid between a male O. sinensis and a female M. annamensis. Similarly, STUART & PARHAM (2007) confirmed that O. glyphistoma is a hybrid of Mauremys sinensis and M. cf. annamensis.

Conservation: This is one of the most endangered turtle species according to a 2003 assessment by the IUCN.

Habitat: freshwater (Rivers, swamps, ponds) 
  • BARTH, Dana; DETLEF BERNHARD; GUIDO FRITZSCH & UWE FRITZ 2004. The freshwater turtle genus Mauremys (Testudines, Geoemydidae) — a textbook example of an east–west disjunction or a taxonomic misconcept? Zoologica Scripta 33 (3): 213–221 - get paper here
  • Bour, R. 2008. Global diversity of turtles (Chelonii; Reptilia) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595:593–598 - get paper here
  • Bourret, R. 1941. Les tortues de l'Indochine. Institut Océanographique l'Indochine 38:1-235
  • Cornejo-Páramo, P., Lira-Noriega, A., Ramírez-Suástegui, C. et al. 2020. Sex determination systems in reptiles are related to ambient temperature but not to the level of climatic fluctuation. BMC Evol Biol 20: 103 - get paper here
  • Dalton, Rex 2003. Mock turtles. Nature 423: 219-220 - get paper here
  • Ernst,C.H. and Barbour,R.W. 1989. Turtles of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. - London
  • Feldman, C. R. & Parham, James Ford 2004. Molecular Systematics of Old World Stripe-Necked Turtles (Testudines: Mauremys). Asiatic Herpetological Research 10: 28-37 - get paper here
  • Fong, J.J.; J. F. Parham, H. Shi, B. L. Stuart & R. L. Carter 2007. A genetic survey of heavily exploited, endangered turtles: caveats on the conservation value of trade animals. Animal Conservation 10: 452–460 - get paper here
  • Fong, Jonathan J.; Bryan L. Stuart, Timothy E. M. Mccormack & James F. Parham 2019. First Genetic Data of the Critically Endangered Vietnamese Pond Turtle (Mauremys annamensis) from Known-locality Specimens. Current Herpetology Aug 2019 Vol. 38, No. 2: 140-152 - get paper here
  • Fritz, U. & Mendau, D. 2002. Ein Gattungsbastard zweier südostasiatischer Schildkröten: Cuora amboinensis kamaroma RUMMLER & FRITZ 1991 x Mauremys annamensis (SIEBENROCK 1903). Salamandra 38 (3): 129-134 - get paper here
  • Gemel, R.; G. Gassner & S. Schweiger 2019. Katalog der Typen der Herpetologischen Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien – 2018. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B 121: 33–248
  • HU, Qiping; HUANG Chengxin, XU Shuru, ZHANG Qiuming, MA Ning, ZHONG Hanming 2013. Primary Phylogenies of Mauremys guangxiensis and Mauremys iversoni Inferred from DNA Sequences of Mitochondrial ND4 Gene and Nuclear c-mos Gene. Sichuan Journal of Zoology 32 (2): 180-186 - get paper here
  • Iverson,J.B. & MCCORD,W.P. 1994. Variation in East Asian Turtles of the Genus Mauremys (Bataguridae, Testudines). Journal of Herpetology 28 (2): 178-187 - get paper here
  • Janssen J, Indenbaum RA, 2018. Endemic Vietnamese Reptiles in Commercial Trade. Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity - get paper here
  • Le, Minh, Thang Hoang and Duc Le 2004. Trade data and some comments on the distribution of Mauremys annamensis (Siebenrock, 1903). Asiatic Herpetological Research 10: 110-113. - get paper here
  • McCord, W.P. & Joseph-Ouni, M. 2004. Chelonian Illustrations #16: Pond, Thread, and Four-Eyed Turtles of Eastern Asia. Reptilia (GB) (36): 10-13 - get paper here
  • McCord,W.P. & Iverson,J.B. 1994. A new species of Ocadia (Testudines: Batagurinae) from southwestern China. Proc. Biol. Washington 107 (1): 52-59
  • McDowell, S.B. 1964. Partition of the Genus Clemmys and related problems in the taxonomy of the aquatic Testudinidae. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 143 (2): 239-279. - get paper here
  • Medina López, D, J. Soler Massana and A. Martínez Silvestre 2001. Annamemys annamensis, Vietnamese turtle in grave danger of extinction. Reptilia (GB) (18):13-15 - get paper here
  • Meier, E. 2004. Das Internationale Zentrum für Schildkrötenschutz (IZS) füllt sich mit Leben. Elaphe 12 (2): 60-64
  • Nguyen, S.V., Ho, C.T. and Nguyen, T.Q. 2009. Herpetofauna of Vietnam. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 768 pp.
  • Obst, F.J. 2003. Sumpfschildkröten. Draco 4 (13): 4-18 - get paper here
  • Parham, James Ford ; W. Brian Simison; Kenneth H. Kozak; Chris R. Feldman and Haitao Shi 2001. New Chinese turtles: endangered or invalid? A reassessment of two species using mitochondrial DNA, allozyme electrophoresis and known-locality specimens. Animal Conservation 4: 357–367 [erratum in Animal Conservation 5:86] - get paper here
  • Pritchard, P.C.H. 1979. Encyclopedia of Turtles. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune, New Jersey: 895 p.
  • Savage, J.M. 1953. Remarks on the Indo-chinese turtle Annamemys merkleni; with special reference to the status of Cyclemys annamensis. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (12) 6: 468-472. - get paper here
  • Schilde, M. 2004. Asiatische Sumpfschildkröten - Die Familie Geoemydidae in Südostasien, China und Japan. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 192 pp. - get paper here
  • Siebenrock, F. 1903. Schildkröten des östlichen Hinterindien. Sitzungsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse. 112 (1): 333-353 - get paper here
  • Somerova, Barbora; Ivan Rehák, Petr Velenský, Klára Palupčíková, Tomáš Protiva, Daniel Frynta 2015. Haplotype variation in founders of the Mauremys annamensis population kept in European Zoos. . Acta Herpetologica 10: 7-15 - get paper here
  • Spinks, Phillip Q.; Shaffer, H. Bradley; Iverson, John B; McCord, William P. 2004. Phylogenetic hypotheses for the turtle family Geoemydidae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32(1):164-182 - get paper here
  • Stuart, B.L. & Parham, J.F. 2007. Recent hybrid origin of three rare Chinese turtles. Conservation Genetics 8:169–175 - get paper here
  • TTWG [Peter Paul van Dijk, John B. Iverson, Anders G.J. Rhodin, H. Bradley Shaffer, and Roger Bour] 2014. Turtles of the World, 7th Edition: Annotated Checklist of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution with Maps, and Conservation Status. 000.v7. Chelonian Research Monographs (ISSN 1088-7105) No. 5, doi:10.3854/crm.5.000.checklist.v7.2014 - get paper here
  • Yasukawa, Yuichirou 1994. On the plastral buttress of Mauremys annamensis. Japanese Journal of Herpetology 15 (4): 139
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