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Medopheos edracanthus (BOCOURT, 1874)

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Higher TaxaTeiidae, Teiinae, Gymnophthalmoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Bocourt's Ameiva 
SynonymAmeiva edracantha BOCOURT 1874
Cnemidophorus armatulus COPE 1875: 165
Verticaria hedracantha [sic] — COPE 1885: 172
Ameiva edracantha — BOULENGER 1885: 349
Ameiva edracantha — PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970: 21
Ameiva edracantha — LEHR et al. 2002
Medopheos edracanthus — HARVEY et al. 2012
Medopheos edracantha —CUADRADO et al. 2020 
DistributionEcuador, Peru (coastal areas; Ancash [HR 31: 52])

Type locality: see comment  
TypesHolotype: MNHN-RA 4202 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): Medopheos differs from all other Teiidae in having a cluster of 5–6 preanal spurs on either side of the vent in males. Unlike mainland Ameiva (characters in parentheses), Medopheos has ventrals in 8 longitudinal rows at midbody (10), large triangular scales on the dorsal surface of the brachium (granular), and three relatively large subequal scales at the heel (scales at heel small and numerous). Unlike Holcosus, Medopheos also has five parietals (three, except in the H. septemlineatus Group where the parietals are heavily and irregularly fractured), a rostral groove (absent except in H. niceforoi), homogeneous subdigital lamellae on the hands (subarticular lamellae swollen), and smooth distal lamellae of the fourth toe (sharply keeled). Medopheos lacks postanal plates and a dorsolateral row of serrated caudals (both present in Holcosus). 
CommentType species: Ameiva edracantha BOCOURT 1874 is the type species of the genus Medopheos HARVEY et al. 2012.

Synonymy that of PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970

Terra typica: Mexico [BOCOURT 1874; in error] 
EtymologyThe genus Medopheos is a masculine noun in the nominative singular derived from the Greek noun medea meaning genitalia and pheos, a term used to refer to certain spiny plants. The name alludes to the distinctive cluster of 5–6 preanal spurs on either side of the vent of males. 
  • Aguilar, César; Mikael Lundberg, Karen Siu-Ting y María Elena Jiménez 2007. Nuevos registros para la herpetofauna del departamento de Lima, descripción del renacuajo de Telmatobius rimac Schmidt, 1954 (Anura: Ceratophrydae) y una clave de los anfibios. Rev. peru. biol. 14(2): 209-216 - get paper here
  • Bocourt,M.F. 1874. Deux notes sur quelques sauriens de l'Amérique tropicale. Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool. Paris (5) 19 (4): 1-5 [1873] - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • CASTRO, FRANCIS P. & VÍCTOR R. MORALES 2012. Intraspecific ecological behavior in Ameiva edracantha Bocourt, 1874 (SQUAMATA, TEIIDAE) from Tumbes Reserve Zone, Peru. Herpetotropicos 8 (1-2): 55-60 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1875. Report on the Reptiles brought by Professor James Orton from the middle and upper Amazon and western Peru. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia N.S. (2) 8: 159-183 [sometimes thought to be published 1876 but see Murphy et al. 2007 for clarification] - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1885. Twelfth contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 22: 167-194 [1884] - get paper here
  • Cuadrado SS, Loor YA, Narváez AE 2020. Herpetofauna of Engabao, Playas Canton, Ecuador, with notes on the occurrence of Ceratoprhys stolzmanni (Steindachner, 1882). Check List 16(3): 665-674 - get paper here
  • HARVEY, MICHAEL B.; GABRIEL N. UGUETO & RONALD L. GUTBERLET, Jr. 2012. Review of Teiid Morphology with a Revised Taxonomy and Phylogeny of the Teiidae (Lepidosauria: Squamata). Zootaxa 3459: 1–156 - get paper here
  • Koch, C. 2010. Geheimnisvolles Peru. Reptilia (Münster) 15 (82): 36-45 - get paper here
  • Lehr, E. 2002. Amphibien und Reptilien in Peru. Natur und Tier-Verlag (Münster), 208 pp. - get paper here
  • Lehr, E.; Köhler, G. & Streit, B. 2002. Die Herpetofauna von Mittelperu entlang eines Transektes von der pazifischen Küste bis in die Hochanden (Amphibia et Reptilia). Faun. Abh. Mus. Tierk. Dresden 22 (2): 361-392
  • MURPHY R. W., SMITH A. and NGO A. 2007. The versions of Cope's Batrachia and Reptilia of Costa Rica. Bibliotheca Herpetologica 7 (1): - get paper here
  • Torres-Carvajal O, Pazmiño-Otamendi G, Salazar-Valenzuela D. 2019. Reptiles of Ecuador: a resource-rich portal, with a dynamic checklist and photographic guides. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 13 (1): [General Section]: 209–229 (e178) - get paper here
  • Torres-Carvajal, O. 2004. Herpetofauna of Isla de La Plata, Ecuador. Herpetological Review 35 (1): 85 - get paper here
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