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Melanochelys trijuga (SCHWEIGGER, 1812)

IUCN Red List - Melanochelys trijuga - Least Concern, LR

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Higher TaxaGeoemydidae (Geoemydinae), Testudinoidea, Testudines (turtles)
SubspeciesMelanochelys trijuga trijuga (SCHWEIGGER 1812)
Melanochelys trijuga coronata (ANDERSON 1879)
Melanochelys trijuga edeniana (THEOBALD 1876)
Melanochelys trijuga indopeninsularis (ANNANDALE 1913)
Melanochelys trijuga parkeri (DERANIYAGALA 1939)
Melanochelys trijuga thermalis (LESSON 1830) 
Common NamesE: Indian Black Turtle, Indian Pond Terrapin, Bengal Black Turtle
G: Schwarzbauch-Erdschildkröte 
SynonymEmys trijuga SCHWEIGGER 1812
Testudo scabra LINNAEUS 1758: 198 (?)
Emys Trijuga — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 310
Emys scabra — BELL 1836-1842
Emys scabra — SOWERBY 1872
Nicoria trijuga — BOULENGER 1889
Geoemyda trijuga — SIEBENROCK 1909
Melanochelys trijuga — PRITCHARD 1979
Melanochelys trijuga — KARUNARATHNA & AMARASINGHE 2011
Melanochelys trijuga — TTWG 2021

Melanochelys trijuga trijuga (LESSON 1834)
Emys belangeri LESSON 1834 (in BÉLANGER)
Emys trijuga var. maderaspatana ANDERSON 1879
Geoemyda trijuga plumbea ANNANDALE 1915
Geoemyda trijuga trijuga — MERTENS 1934
Melanochelys trijuga trijuga — PRITCHARD 1992
Melanochelys trijuga trijuga — DAVID 1994
Melanochelys trijuga trijuga — HALLERMANN et al. 2001
Melanochelys trijuga trijuga — MURTHY 2010: 23
Melanochelys trijuga trijuga — TTWG 2021

Melanochelys trijuga coronata (ANDERSON 1878)
Emys trijuga var. coronata ANDERSON 1878
Geoemyda trijuga coronata, SIEBENROCK 1909
Melanochelys trijuga coronata — PRITCHARD 1992
Melanochelys trijuga coronata — DAVID 1994
Melanochelys trijuga coronata — MURTHY 2010: 23
Melanochelys trijuga coronata — TTWG 2021

Melanochelys trijuga edeniana THEOBALD 1876
Melanochelys edeniana THEOBALD 1876
Emys trijuga var. burmana ANDERSON 1878
Nicoria trijuga var. edeniana, BOULENGER 1889
Geoemyda trijuga edeniana, SIEBENROCK 1909
Melanochelys trijuga wiroti REIMANN in WIROT [NUTAPHAND] 1979
Melanochelys trijuga edeniana — PRITCHARD 1992
Melanochelys trijuga edeniana — DAVID 1994
Melanochelys edeniana — KUCHLING 1995
Melanochelys trijuga wiroti — OBST 2003: 17
Melanochelys trijuga edeniana — TTWG 2014
Melanochelys trijuga edeniana — TTWG 2021

Melanochelys trijuga indopeninsularis (ANNANDALE 1913)
Geoemyda indopeninsularis ANNANDALE 1913
Geoemyda trijuga indopeninsularis, SMITH 1931
Melanochelys trijuga indopeninsularis — PRITCHARD 1992
Melanochelys trijuga indopeninsularis — DAVID 1994
Melanochelys trijuga indopeninsularis — MURTHY 2010: 23
Melanochelys trijuga indopeninsularis — TTWG 2021

Melanochelys trijuga parkeri DERANIYAGALA 1939
Melanochelys trijuga parkeri DERANIYAGALA 1939
Melanochelys trijuga parkeri — PRITCHARD 1992
Melanochelys trijuga parkeri — DAVID 1994
Melanochelys trijuga parkeri — MURTHY 2010: 23
Melanochelys trijuga parkeri — TTWG 2021

Melanochelys trijuga thermalis (LESSON 1830)
Emys thermalis LESSON 1830
Emys sebae GRAY 1831
Nicoria trijuga var. thermalis, BOULENGER 1889
Geoemyda trijuga thermalis, SIEBENROCK 1909
Melanochelys trijuga thermalis — PRITCHARD 1992
Melanochelys trijuga thermalis — DAVID 1994
Melanochelys trijuga thermalis — JANZEN et al. 2007
Melanochelys trijuga thermalis — MURTHY 2010: 23
Melanochelys trijuga thermalis — TTWG 2021 
DistributionIndia (Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Tamil Nadu etc.), N Bangladesh, C Myanmar (= Burma), Sri Lanka, Maldives, Chagos Islands, Nepal

May have been introduced to the Chagos Archipelago in the Indian Ocean (LEVER 2003: 20).

trijuga: India

coronata: SW India (Kerala)

indopeninsularis: Bangladesh, NE India, Nepal

parkeri: Sri Lanka

thermalis: SE India, Maldives, Sri Lanka

Type locality: according to Iverson (1992), from "insula Java" (in the Greater Sundas, Indonesia).  
Reproductionoviparous. Exhibits temperature‐dependent sex determination (TSD) fide Cornejo-Páramo et al. 2020 (and references therein). 
TypesHolotype: unlocated (not located in MNHN)
Holotype: ZSI (?), "Ind. Mus. No. 1012" according to Annandale (1913:69); presumably in the ZSI, fide Iverson 1992: 146 [coronata]
Syntypes: ZSI 830, 1010, 1011. 1018, 1097, 1369 and 2589, (7 specimens) according to Annandale (1913:71) [edeniana]
Syntypes: ZSI 17098 and 17100 (2 specimens) [indopeninsularis]
Holotype: BMNH [parkeri]
Holotype: unlocated fide Iverson 1992: 146 [thermalis]
Holotype: ZFMK 46510, female [wiroti] 
CommentSynonymy: According to Wermuth and Mertens 1977:35 (under Geoemyda trijuga), and Iverson 1986:56, Testudo scabra Linnaeus 1758:198, (Holotype: ZMUU 129), may be an older name for this species. See also Pritchard and Trebbau 1984:182, Smith 1931:97; Bourret 1941:155-156 (as Geoemyda trijuga); and Pritchard (1979:204).

Distribution: subspecies following DAS (1996). Uttarakhand, India (Subir Chowfin and Uwe Fritz, pers. comm., 3 Sept 2013). Melanochelys trijuga was reported to occur in forests of Dangs, South Gujarat (Daniel and Shull, 1963; Vyas and Patel, 1990), but more recently this species has become regionally extinct in Gujarat (Vyas, 2007; Patel et al., 2018, Patel & Vyas 2019).

Types: The holotype of Testudo scabra Linnaeus 1758 is actually Rhinoclemmys punctularia. To promote nomenclatural stability, RHODIN & CARR (2009) designate Testudo scabra Linnaeus 1758 as a nomen oblitum and nomen rejectum synonymized under Testudo punctularia Daudin 1801, already a

nomen protectum.

Type species: Emys trijuga SCHWEIGGER 1812 is the type species of the genus Melanochelys GRAY 1869: 187. 
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