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Metlapilcoatlus occiduus (HOGE, 1966)

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Western Jumping Pitviper
S: Vibora Sorda 
SynonymBothrops affinis BOCOURT 1868: 201 (preoccupied by B. affinis GRAY 1849)
Bothrops nummifer affinis — STUART 1963: 130
Bothrops nummifer occiduus HOGE 1966: 130 (nom. subst.)
Porthidium nummifer occiduum — WELCH 1994: 101
Bothrops nummifer occiduus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 53
Atropoides occiduus — SMITH & FERRARI-CASTRO 2008
Atropoides occiduus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 85
Metlapilcoatlus occiduus — CAMPBELL et al. 2019 
DistributionMexico (Chiapas), Guatemala, El Salvador

Type locality: San Augustin, on South slope of mountains, in Guatemala, 610 m elevation (Bothrops affinis).  
TypesSyntypes: MNHN-RA 1196 and others; MNHN-RA 1194-95 are apparently unrelated. 
CommentDistribution: WELCH 1994 said “Ecuador” (in error). Records from El Salvador are from Ahuachapan: Parque Nacional El Imposible; La Libertad: Finca Los Cedros Arriba; San Vicente: Finca El Carmen (after Köhler et al. 2006). Partly after Manuel Acevedo, pers. comm. (28 Ap 2013). For a map of localities see Tepos-Ramírez et al. 2021: Fig. 1. 
EtymologyFrom the Latin occiduus meaning western probably in reference to its geographic distribution. 
  • Bocourt,M.F. 1868. Descriptions de quelques crotaliens nouveaux appartenant au genre Bothrops, recueillis dans le Guatémala. Ann. Sci. Nat., Paris, Ser. 5, (Zool.) 10: 201-202 - get paper here
  • Bolaños, R. 1984. Serpientes, Venenos y Ofidismo en Costa Rica. Ed. Univ. Costa Rica, 136 pp.
  • Burger, W. Leslie 1950. A preliminary study of the subspecies of the jumping viper, Bothrops nummifer. Bulletin of the Chicago Academy of Sciences 9 (3): 59-67
  • Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
  • Campbell, Jonathan; Darrel R. Frost and Todd A. Castoe 2019. A NEW GENERIC NAME FOR JUMPING PITVIPERS (SERPENTES: VIPERIDAE). Rev. Latinoamer. Herp. 2 (2): 52-53 - get paper here
  • Castoe, Todd A., Paul T. Chippindale, Jonathan A. Campbell, Loren K. Ammerman and Christopher L. Parkinson 2003. Molecular systematics of the Middle American jumping vipers (genus Atropoides) and phylogeography of the Atropoides nummifer complex. Herpetologica 59 (3): 420-431 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C., Bibron, G. & DUMÉRIL, A. H. A., 1854. Erpétologie générale ou histoire naturelle complète des reptiles. Tome septième. Deuxième partie, comprenant l'histoire des serpents venimeux. Paris, Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret: i-xii + 781-1536 - get paper here
  • Fischer, J. G. 1880. Neue Reptilien und Amphibien. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 46 (1): 215-227 - get paper here
  • García-Padilla, Elí. 2015. Predation event and a distributional record for Atropoides occiduus (Hoge, 1966). Mesoamerican Herpetology 2(3): 376–377 - get paper here
  • Groen,J. 2008. Een blik p giftige slangen en de hobby eromheen. Lacerta 66 (1-3): 6-15 - get paper here
  • Guerra Centeno, Dennis; Héctor Fuentes Rousselin & David Morán Villatoro 2012. Serpientes de Guatemala: Guía para didentificación de especies. Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala, 186 pp.
  • Heimes, P. 2016. Snakes of Mexico. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 572 pp
  • Hoge, A.R. 1966. Preliminary account on Neotropical Crotalinae (Serpentes: Viperidae). Mem. Inst. Butantan 32 [1965]: 109-184 - get paper here
  • Jadin, Robert C.; Ronald L. Gutberlet Jr and Eric N. Smith 2010. Phylogeny, evolutionary morphology, and hemipenis descriptions of the Middle American jumping pitvipers (Serpentes: Crotalinae: Atropoides). J Zool Syst Evol Res 48(4): 360–365; doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0469.2009.00559.x - get paper here
  • Jan, G. 1863. Elenco Sistematico degli Ofidi descriti e disegnati per l'Iconografia Generale. Milano, A. Lombardi. vii + 143 pp. - get paper here
  • Johnson, Jerry D.; Vicente Mata-Silva, Elí García Padilla, and Larry David Wilson 2015. The Herpetofauna of Chiapas, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (3): 272–329. - get paper here
  • López González, C.A.; Aceves Lara, D.R. & Jiménez Maldonado, R.E. 2006. ATROPOIDES NUMMIFER (RÜPPELL, 1845) (SERPENTES: VIPERIDAE), NUEVO REGISTRO PARA LA OFIDIOFAUNA DE QUERÉTARO, MÉXICO. Acta Zoológica Mexicana (n.s.) 22 (1): 133-134 - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Mertens, R. 1952. Die Amphibien und Reptilien von El Salvador. Abh. senckenb. naturf. Ges. (Frankfurt) (No. 487): 120 pp.
  • Müller, F. 1880. Erster Nachtrag zum Katalog der herpetologischen Sammlung des Basler Museums. Verh. Naturf. Ges. Basel 7: 120-165 - get paper here
  • Parkinson,C.L. 1999. Molecular systematics and biogeographical history of pitvipers as determined by mitochondrial ribosomal DNA sequences. Copeia 1999 (3): 576-586 - get paper here
  • Porras, L.W. & Solórzano, A. 2006. Costa Rica’s venomous snakes. Reptilia (GB) (48): 11-17 - get paper here
  • Porras, L.W. & Solórzano, A. 2006. Die Schlangen Costa Ricas. Reptilia (Münster) 11 (61): 20-27 - get paper here
  • Rüppell, E. 1845. Verzeichnis der in dem Museum der Senckenbergischen naturforschenden Gesellschaft aufgestellten Sammlungen. Dritte Abteilung: Amphibien. Mus. Senckenbergianum 3 (3): 293- 316
  • Smith, E.N. & Ferrari-Castro, J.A. 2008. A new species of jumping pitviper of the genus Atropoides (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae) from the Sierra de Botaderos and the Sierra La Muralla, Honduras. Zootaxa 1948: 57–68 - get paper here
  • Stuart, L. C. 1935. A contribution to a knowledge of the herpetology of a portion of the savanna region of Central Peten, Guatemala. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology Miscellaneous Publications 29: 1-56 - get paper here
  • Stuart, L.C. 1963. A checklist of the herpetofauna of Guatemala. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool., Univ. Michigan (No. 122): 1-150 - get paper here
  • Tepos-Ramírez, Mauricio; Oscar Flores-Villela, Julián A. Velasco, Carlos Pedraza Lara, Oscar R. García Rubio & Robert C. Jadin 2021. Molecular Phylogenetics and Morphometrics Reveal a New Endemic Jumping Pitviper (Serpentes: Viperidae: Metlapilcoatlus) from the Sierra Madre Oriental of Mexico. Journal of Herpetology 55 (2): 181-191 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Werman,S.D. 1992. Phylogenetic relationships of Central and South American pitvipers of the genus Bothrops (sensu lato): cladistic analyses of biochemical and anatomical characters. In: J.A. Campbell and E.D. Brodie (eds.): Biology of the Pitvipers. Selva, Tyler, Texas, pp. 21-40
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