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Micrurus dumerilii (JAN, 1858)

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Higher TaxaElapidae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
SubspeciesMicrurus dumerilii antioquiensis SCHMIDT 1936
Micrurus dumerilii carinicaudus SCHMIDT 1936
Micrurus dumerilii colombianus (GRIFFIN 1916)
Micrurus dumerilii dumerilii (JAN 1858)
Micrurus dumerilii transandinus SCHMIDT 1936
Micrurus dumerilii venezuelensis ROZE 1989 
Common NamesE: Capuchin coral snake
E: Common capuchin coral snake [dumerilii]
E: Antioquian coral snake [antioquiensis]
E: Intermediate capuchin coral snake [carinicaudus]
E: Santa Marta capuchin coral snake [colombianus]
E: Transandean coral snake [transandinus]
E: Venezuelan capuchin coral snake [venezuelensis] 
SynonymMicrurus dumerilii dumerilii (JAN 1858)
Elaps dumerilii JAN 1858
Micrurus dumerilii — SCHMIDT 1955
Micrurus dumerilii dumerilii — WELCH 1994: 81
Micrurus dumerilii dumerilii — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004: 167
Micrurus dumerilii — WALLACH et al. 2014: 445

Micrurus dumerilii antioquiensis (SCHMIDT 1936)
Micrurus antioquiensis SCHMIDT 1936
Micrurus carinicauda antioquiensis SCHMIDT 1936
Micrurus carinicaudus antioquiensis — SCHMIDT 1955
Micrurus dumerilii antioquiensis — WELCH 1994: 81
Micrurus dumerilii antioquiensis — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004: 167

Micrurus dumerilii carinicauda (K.P. SCHMIDT 1936)
Micrurus carinicauda SCHMIDT 1936
Micrurus carinicauda — LAURENT 1949: 16
Micrurus carinicauda — BURGER 1955
Micrurus dumerilii carinicauda — WELCH 1994: 81
Micrurus dumerilii carinicaudus — KORNACKER 1999: 152
Micrurus dumerilii carinicauda — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004: 167
Micrurus carinicauda carinicauda — GEMEL et al. 2019

Micrurus dumerili colombianus (GRIFFIN 1916)
Elaps colombianus GRIFFIN 1916: 216
Micrurus dumerilii colombianus — WELCH 1994: 81
Micrurus dumerilii colombianus — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004: 167

Micrurus dumerilii transandinus (SCHMIDT,1936)
Micrurus transandinus SCHMIDT 1936
Micrurus transandinus — LAURENT 1949: 16
Micrurus carinicaudus transandinus — SCHMIDT 1955
Micrurus carinicaudus transandinus — PETERS 1960
Micrurus dumerilii transandinus — WELCH 1994: 81
Micrurus dumerilii transandinus — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004: 167
Micrurus dumerilii transandinus — SILVA et al. 2016

Micrurus dumerili venezuelensis ROZE 1989
Micrurus dumerilii venezuelensis — WELCH 1994: 81
Micrurus dumerilii venezuelensis — KORNACKER 1999: 153
Micrurus dumerilii venezuelensis — BARRIO-AMOROS et al. 2003
Micrurus dumerilii venezuelensis — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004: 167 
DistributionNW Venezuela, N/W Colombia (incl. Valle del Cauca), N Ecuador, SE Panama

dumerilii: Colombia (Magdalena River region to Norte de Santander); Type locality: "Colombie Carthagène” [=Cartagena, extreme northern Bolívar Department, Colombia, 10˚25'N, 75˚32'W].

antioquiensis: Colombia (Cauca Valley); Type locality: Santa Rita, north of Medellin, Antioquia, Colombia.

carinicauda: N Venezuela (Mérida [HR 32: 279]) west to Colombia (Norte de Santander); Type locality: Orope, Estado Táchira, Venezuela.

colombianus: N Colombia; Type locality: Minca, Colombia

transandinus: Colombia (Choco), Ecuador (west of Andes); Type locality: Andagoya, Choco, Colombia.

venezuelensis: NC Venezuela (Cordillera de la Costa); Type locality: El Valle, Distrito Federal, Venezuela.  
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: MNHN-RA 3923, a 660 mm male (coll. Barrot)
Holotype: BMNH 1946.1.17.23 [antioquiensis]
Holotype: FMNH 2587 [carinicauda]
Holotype: CM 197 [colombianus]
Holotype: AMNH 59392 [venezuelensis]
Holotype: MCZ 32744 [transandinus]
Holotype: FMNH 2587 [carinicaudus] 
DiagnosisDefinition: A single-banded coral snake in which several subspecies have developed accessory triad color patterns. When accessory triads are present, the first is represented by the nuchal band and a poody developed posterior accessory black band. This means that the first "triad" is made up of only 2/3 of a full triad. The head has a black cap that is occasionally reduced in some subspecies. The black nuchal band may be present, reduced, or absent. The red bands have conspicuous black-tipped scales. On the tail there are only black and white bands, or in larger specimens most of the light bands can be red. Males have supraanal tubercles (from Roze 1996: 163-167, including the following subspecies).

Description (dumerilii): Males have 195 to 206 (198.9) and females have 208 to 220 (215.3) ventrals; subcaudals 49 to 53 (50.7) in males and 35 to 41 (37.2) in females. Examined: 685 males and 328 females, including the holotype.
A triad-type subspecies in which the black cap extends completely or almost completely over the parietals but is separated from the black nuchal band. The chin is heavily marked by irregular black spots. The black nuchal band is 6 to 11 dorsals long and 1 to 2 scales shorter ventrally. The black central band of the triads is 2 or more times as long as the irregular outer bands. The frequent lengths of the bands of the first full triad are 2-5-2 or 3-5-3 dorsals. Dorsally, the central black band is as long as ventrally or a little longer. The black outer bands are quite irregular dorsally and more so ventrally where they may be represented only by irregular black spots. The white bands are usually 1 dorsal and ventral long, except the first light band behind the black nuchal, which is usually 2 dorsals long. The white bands have irregular black-tipped scales. The red bands may be slightly longer or shorter than a complete triad, with irregular black tips on all dorsals, but ventrally they are usually immaculate. The black tail bands are 3 to 4 times as long as the white ones. The latter have very conspicuous black-tipped scales or a large black dorsal spot that at times fuses with the black bands.
The males have 2/3 7 to 2/3 10 (8.4) and the females have 2/3 9 to 2/3 13 triads. Males have 6 to 9 (8.4) and females have 5 to 7 (6.1) black tai! bands.

Description (antioquiensis): Males have 189 to 204 (194.6) and females have 210 to 217 (214.0) ventrals; subcaudals 47 to 57 (53.4) in males and 36 to 42 (39.4) in females. Examined: 20 males and 20 females, including the holotype.
A single-banded subspecies in which the black cap covers almost the entire parietals but the black nuchal band is either absent or reduced to a half band that is interrupted either dorsally or laterally. The chin is completely black or is light with large black spots on the genials and the gular region and with smaller black spots on other infracephalic scales. The impression of this subspecies is that it "moved" the black pigment from the dorsal black nuchal region forward onto the ventral part of the head. The black bands are 2 to 3 dorsals and 2 to 4 ventrals long. The white bands are reduced to Y2 dorsal and may be indistinct ventrally. The red bands are 8 to 12 dorsals and ventrals long, immaculate or with small dots concentrated along the borders. The black tail bands are only slightly longer than the white bands. The latter have scales with conspicuous black tips or large irregular black spots that fuse together in some specimens.
The males have 10 to 17 (12.5) black body bands, usually 11 to 13, and females have 13 to 16 (14.8). The males have 6 to 8 (7.0) and the female have 4 to 6 (5.2) black tail bands.

Description (carinicauda): Males have 192 to 197 (193.6) and females have 204 to 212 (208.2) ventrals; subcaudals 48 to 55 (51.0) in males and 33 to 42 (35.1) in females. Examined: 8 males and 11 females, including the holotype.
A single-banded subspecies in which the black cap covers most of the parietals or is reduced and covers about one half the length of the parietals. The chin is white with several black scales, usually the mental and the first infralabials. The black nuchal band is complete and 4 to 6 dorsals long. The white or yellow bands are Y2 to 1 dorsal and ventrallong. The red bands are 6 to 13 dorsals and ventrals long; the anterior bands are longer than the posterior bands and all red scales have regular black tips. The red bands are usually immaculate ventrally. The black tail bands are about twice as long as the white bands; the latter'have irregular black-tipped scales.
The males have 14 to 19 (17.1) and the females have 19 to 23 (20.7) black body bands. The males have 6 to 9 (7.7) and the females have 4 to 7 (4.9) black tai! bands.

Description (colombianus): Males have 179 to 192 (185.2) and females have 198 to 207 (203.5) ventrals; subcaudals 44 to 51 (47.1) in males and 31 to 37 (34.4) in females. Examined: 7 males and 4 females, including the holotype.
An accessory triad-type subspecies in which the black cap may be either complete or reduced. Occasionallight spots are present onthe snout. The chin is mostly black or is white with some irregular black spots. The nuchal black band, 3 to 5 dorsals long, is followed by a white band 1dorsallong and by a poorlydefined accessory black band, formed by the concentration of black-tipped scales but without forming a c1early defined band. In this accessory triad-type pattern, the central black bands are 2 to 3 dorsals and ventrals long. The outer bands, formed by the concentration of black-tipped scales, become better defined on the posterior part of the body where they are 1 to 2 dorsals long. They are absent on the venter or are represented by irregular black spots. The white bands are Y2 to 1 dorsal and ventrallong. The first red band is 19 to 21 dorsals long; the others are 11 to 15 dorsals and ventrals long. They become shorter toward the posterior part of the body. The red scales have conspicuous or feebly-defined black tips. The tail has irregular black and white spots, barely distinguishable as bands.
The males have 2/3 10 to 2/3 13 (11.4) and the females have 2/3 11 to 2/3 14 (12.5) triads. The males have 6 to 1 (7.3) and the females have 4 to 6 (4.7) irregular black ta bands.

Description (transandinus): Males have 190 to 204 (196.3) and female have 205 to 217 (212.1) ventrals; subcaudals 48 to 5 (53.4) in males and 36 to 41 (39.2) in females. Examinec 32 males and 34 females, including the holotype.
A single-banded subspecies with a complete 0 nearly complete black cap that covers the tips of th parietals. The chin is white but most of the infr2 cephalic scales are outlined by black, and occasionall the upper part of the mental and the first infralabial also are black. The black nuchal band is 3 to 5 dorsal and ventrals long. In occasional specimens the blac bands are irregularly expanded ventrally. The whit bands are Y2 to 1dorsal and ventrallong. The red band have regular black-tipped scales and they diminish i length toward the tail. The first red band is 13 to 1 dorsals long, but near the tail they are only 5 to dorsals and ventrals long. Ventrally, occasional spec mens have 1 or 2 large black spots in the red areal Black and white tai! bands are found in small t medium-sized individuals, but larger specimens hav black, red, and white bands with conspicuous irregula black-tipped scales in the middle of the red bands.
The males have 11 to 16 (14.3) and the females 15 t 21 (17.4) black bands. The males have 6 to 9 (7.5), USl,; ally 7 to 8, the females have 5 to 7 (5.6), usually 5 to I black tail bands.

Description (venezuelensis): Males have 177 to 191 (183.4) and females have 194 to 199 (197.0) ventrals; subcaudals 47 to 51 (48.6) in males and 33 to 35 (34.3) in females. Examined: 7 males and 4 females, induding the holotype.
This is a single-banded subspecies with the black cap usually reduced, covering only half the length of the parietals. Occasionally the black cap reaches almost to the tips of the parietals. Below, the mental and the first infralabials are black; the rest of the chin is white. The black nuchal band covers 3 to 6 dorsals and ventrals. The black bands cover 2 to 4 dorsals and 2 to 3 ventrals. The yellow or white band is Y2 to 1 dorsal and ventrallong, usually without black tips. The red bands have scales with regular black tips and are 5 to 10 dorsals and ventrals long; the longest ones are on the anterior part of the body. They are usually immaculate ventrally. The black tail bands are 2 to 3 times longer than the white or yellow bands.
The males have 17 to 24 (20.1) black.body bands and the females have 24 to 26 (25.0). The males have 8 to 10 (8.4) and the females have 6 to 7 (6.5) black tail bands.
 
CommentSubspecies and distribution after WELCH 1994, updated after CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004.

Venomous!

Subspecies: for a key to the subspecies see Roze 1996: 163. 
EtymologyNamed after Auguste M. C. Dumeril, one of the great French herpetologists of the last century.
The name antioquiensis denotes its presence in Antioquia, Colombia.
M. d. carinicaudus is named after Latin carina meaning a keel and cauda meaning tail; the keeled-tail (snake), denoting the presence of supraanal keels or tubercles in males.
The name colombianus denotes its exclusive presence in Colombia.
The name transandinus denotes its transandean distribution; Latin transandinus meaning inhabitant of regions across or "on the other side or beyond" the Andes.
M. d. venezuelensis denotes its presence in Venezuela. 
References
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