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Micrurus frontalis DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL, 1854

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Higher TaxaElapidae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Short-tailed coral snake, Southern Coral Snake
Portuguese: Boipinima, Cobra-Corá, Cobra-Coral, Coral-de-Cara-Preta, Cobra-Coral-do-Sul, Coral, Coral-Verdadeira 
SynonymMicrurus frontalis frontalis (DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854)
Elaps frontalis DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 1223
Micrurus frontalis multicinctus AMARAL 1944
Micrurus frontalis frontalis — WELCH 1994: 83
Micrurus frontalis multicinctus — WELCH 1994: 83
Micrurus frontalis frontalis — ROZE 1994
Micrurus frontalis multicinctus — ROZE 1994
Micrurus frontalis multicinctus — ROZE 1996: 175
Micrurus frontalis frontalis — ROZE 1996: 172
Micrurus frontalis — DA SILVA & SITES 1999: 149
Micrurus frontalis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 446
Micrurus frontalis — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionBrazil (Rio Grande do Sul), Paraguay,
NE Argentina (Corrientes, Entre Rios, Misiones, Santiago del Estero)

multicinctus: Brazil (S Sao Paulo to N Rio Grande do Sul); Type locality: Texeira Soares, Parana Brazil.

Type locality: Corrientes and Misiones Territory, Argentina.  
TypesSyntypes: MNHN-RA 0854 and MNHN-RA 0578 (2 of 3 syntypes left, MNHN-RA 0578A not located), USNM 429
Holotype: IB 8877, a female [multicinctus] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Micrurus frontalis is a triadal coralsnake with black snout with white bordered scales, including the rostral, internasal, prefrontals, nasals, preoculars and anterior 3-4 supralabials (Figs. 3-6). Laterally, the black color usually reaches the postoculars. The top of the head is black including the frontal, supraoculars and parietals, never reaching the temporals. Inferiorly, the mental, first 3 infralabials and sometimes the anterior genials are white. These scales may present irregular black markings. The remaining gular region is red (mostly immaculate). The first triad is usually separated from the parietals by 2 to 7 scales. The triad pattern can either be of equally symmetrical black and white rings or have a slightly longer middle black ring (Table 2). Whenever the middle black ring is longer than the external ones the white rings are longer than the external black rings this unambiguously distinguishes the M. frontalis pattern from the patterns of other taxa. Also, the middle black ring in some other taxa (M. baliocoryphus, M. pyrrhocryptus, and M. tricolor) is much longer compared to M. frontalis. The white and the red rings are usually tipped with black but this is not a fixed character for this taxon. Triads range from 10 to 15 (Table 1, from Silva & Sites 1999). 
CommentSubspecies: Several forms formerly considered to be subspecies of M. frontalis are now regarded as separate species: Micrurus altirostris, M. baliocoryphus, M. pyrrhocryptus and M. diana (DA SILVA & SITES 1999). Synonymy partly following that of CEI 1993. Subspecies and distribution partly after WELCH 1994.


Distribution: Not in Uruguay fide CARREIRA et al. (2005). However, Micrurus altirostris, previously considered as a subspecies of M. frontalis occurs in Uruguay. See map in Nogueira et al. 2019. 
EtymologyLatin from frons meaning forehead and -alis meaning pertaining to; frontalis means pertaining or related to forehead, probably alluding to the spotted snout and upper head shields of the holotype.
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