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Micrurus isozonus (COPE, 1860)

IUCN Red List - Micrurus isozonus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaElapidae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
SubspeciesMicrurus isozonus isozonus (COPE 1860)
Micrurus isozonus sandneri ARENAS-VARGAS 2015 
Common NamesE: Equal-banded coral snake, Venezuela Coral Snake
E: Sandner’s coral snake 
SynonymElaps isozonus COPE 1860: 73
Elaps omissus BOULENGER 1920: 109
Micrurus isozonus — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 1989: 121
Micrurus isozonus — GORZULA & SEÑARIS 1999
Micrurus isozonus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 448

Micrurus isozonus sandneri ARENAS-VARGAS 2015 
DistributionN/C Venezuela (Cojedes, Anzoátegui, Aragua, Bolívar, DF, Guárico, Miranda, Monagas, Sucre), Isla Margarita, Colombia (Bolívar, Arauca), Brazil (Rio Cotinga region in Roraima [ROZE in 1996]), SW Guyana [KOK et al. 2003])

Type locality: Caracas, Venezuela.  
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesSyntypes: ANSP 6804-05 (2)
Holotype: unlocated, collected by I. Heredia de Arenas & I S. Arenas-Vargas, 17 August 1998 [sandneri] 
Diagnosis 
CommentErroneously cited as occuring in Peru. Venomous!

Suspecies: Micrurus isozonus sandneri was described in a privately published outlet. 
EtymologyThe name isozonus, Latin for equal areas or zones, alludes to the approximately equal length of the black and white bands. 
References
  • Arenas-Vargas, I.S. 2015. Serpientes de coral y una nueva subespecie - Micrurus isozonus sandneri. Privately published? via Issu, 56 pp. - get paper here
  • Barrio Amorós, César Luis and Daniel Calcaño 2003. First record of Micrurus lemniscatus (Linnaeus, 1758) from western Venezuela with comments on coral snakes from the eastern Andean piedmont (Squamata: Serpentes: Elapidae). Herpetozoa 16 (1/2):73-78 - get paper here
  • Boulenger,G.A. 1920. Descriptions of four new snakes in the collection of the British Museum. [Zamenis hotsoni unassigned.]. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (9) 6 (31): 108-111 - get paper here
  • Burger, W.L. 1955. A new subspecies of the coral snake Micrurus lemniscatus from Vénézuela, British Guiana and Trinidad, and a key for the identification of associated species of coral snakes. Bol. Mus. Cienc. Nat. Caracas 1: 35-40
  • Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
  • Cole, Charles J.; Carol R. Townsend, Robert P. Reynolds, Ross D. MacCulloch, and Amy Lathrop 2013. Amphibians and reptiles of Guyana, South America: illustrated keys, annotated species accounts, and a biogeographic synopsis. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 125 (4): 317-578; plates: 580-620 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1860. Supplement to A catalogue of the venomous serpents in the Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, with notes on the families, genera, and species.. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1860: 72-74 - get paper here
  • Feitosa, D.T.; M.G. Pires; A.L.C. Prudente; N.J. Silva. 2013. Distribution extension in Colombia and new records for Brazil of Micrurus isozonus (Cope, 1860) (Squamata, Serpentes, Elapidae). Check List 9 (5):1108-1112 - get paper here
  • Feitosa, Darlan T., Paulo P. Passos and Ana Lúcia Prudente. 2007. Taxonomic status and geographic variation of the slender coralsnake Micrurus filiformis (Günther, 1859) (Serpentes, Elapidae). South American J. Herp. 2 (3): 149-156 - get paper here
  • Gorzula, Stefan & Senaris, J. Celsa 1999. In: Contribution to the herpetofauna of the Venezuelan Guayana. I: a data base. Scientia Guaianae, Caracas, No. 8 [1998], 269+ pp.; ISBN 980-6020-48-0
  • KOK, P. J. R., ROZE, J. A., LENGLET, G. L., SAMBHU, H. & ARJOON, D. 2003. Micrurus isozonus (Cope, 1860) (Serpentes, Elapidae): an addition to the herpetofauna of Guyana, with comments on other species of coral snakes from Guyana. Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique, Biologie, 73 : 75-82 - get paper here
  • Lancini,A.R. & Kornacker,P.M. 1989. Die Schlangen von Venezuela. Armitano Editores C.A., Caracas, 1-381
  • Markezich, A.L. 2002. New distribution records of reptiles from Western Venezuela. Herpetological Review 33 (1): 69-74 - get paper here
  • Natera-Mumaw, Marco; Luis Felipe Esqueda-González & Manuel Castelaín-Fernández 2015. Atlas Serpientes de Venezuela. Santiago de Chile, Dimacofi Negocios Avanzados S.A., 456 pp. - get paper here
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo,<br />Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins,<br />Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz0, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisnero 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • Rivas Fuenmayor, G.; Ugueto, G.; Rivero, R. & Miralles, A. 2005. The Herpetofauna of Isla de Margarita, Venezuela: New Records and Comments. Carib. J. Sci. 41 (2): 346-351
  • Rivas Fuenmayor, Gilson and Cesar Luis Barrio Amorós 2005. New Amphibian and Reptile records from Cojedes State, Venezuela. Herpetological Review 36 (2):205-209. - get paper here
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Roze, J. A. 1952. Colección de reptiles del Profesor Scorza, de Venezuela. Acta Biologica Venezuelica 1 (5): 93-114
  • Roze, J. A. 1996. Coral Snakes of the Americas. Krieger, Malabar, Florida
  • Schmidt, Karl P. 1936. Preliminary account of coral snakes of South America. Zoological Series of Field Museum of Natural History 20 (19): 189-203 - get paper here
  • Señaris, J. Celsa; María Matilde Aristeguieta Padrón, Haidy Rojas Gil y Fernando J. M. Rojas-Runjaic 2018. Guía ilustrada de los anfibios y reptiles del valle de Caracas, Venezuela. Ediciones IVIC, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC). Caracas, Venezuela. 348 pp.
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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