Montivipera bornmuelleri (WERNER, 1898)
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|Higher Taxa||Viperidae, Viperinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)|
|Common Names||E: Lebanon Viper|
G: Libanesische Bergotter
|Synonym||Vipera bornmuelleri WERNER 1898: 218|
Vipera lebetina bornmuelleri WERNER 1902
Daboia raddei bornmuelleri — OBST 1983: 233
Lachesis libanotica HEMPRICH 1827 (nomen nudum)
Vipera bornmülleri — ESTERBAUER 1985
Vipera xanthina bornmuelleri — GOLAY et al. 1993: 291
Vipera bornmuelleri — WELCH 1994: 121
Vipera (Montivipera) bornmuelleri — NILSON et al. 1999: 101
Vipera bornmuelleri — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 403
Montivipera bornmuelleri — GARRIGUES et al. 2005
Vipera (Montivipera) bornmuelleri — VENCHI & SINDACO 2006
Vipera (Montivipera) bornmuelleri — GRUBER 2009
Montivipera bulgardhaghica — PHELPS 2010
Montivipera bulgardhaghica — WALLACH et al. 2014: 458
Montivipera bornmuelleri — WALLACH et al. 2014: 458
Montivipera bornmuelleri — BAR et al. 2021
|Distribution||Lebanon, Israel, Syria|
Type locality: “Libanon” (restricted by WERNER 1922)
|Types||Lectotype: lost, was ZSM (SLM) 1653 (lost), adult, collected by Bornüller, no date. Lectotype designation by Werner (1922). See also Franzen & Glaw 2007.|
|Diagnosis||Diagnosis: A species of viper within the Vipera xanthina species-group, characterized by having a much reduced dorsal pattern. This pattern is split up into small irregular bars and blotches, normally between 47 and 64 (^ = 52) on body. In young specimens the pattern is more similar to that in V. xanthina, while the central part of each dorsal blotch fades away during early growth, thus leaving only the dark edges of the blotches left. This results in an irregularly spotted or crossbanded pattern. Belly finely dotted without dark blotches. It is a species of small to medium size, often not exceeding 50 cm length in the wild, but can grow bigger. Midbody scale rows 23 or more rarely 21. Comparatively short tail with only 23 to 26 subcaudals in females and 28 to 31 in males, compared to more than 27 in female xanthina and between 30 and 37 in male xanthina. Further it differs from V. xanthina and V. wagneri in having a lower ventral count (142 to 153, x = 147.8 in females compared to between 148 and 169 in female xanthina and around 161 in female wagneri; and 144 to 152, x = 148.4, in males compared to between 151 and 167 in male xanthina). Vipera bornmuelleri often has three apicals (62 %) in contact with rostral while V. xanthina and V. wagneri has two. Supralabials nine on each side, while V. xanthina regularly has ten. Vipera bornmuelleri differs from V. bulgardaghica by not having the upper preocular in contact with nasal, in having 21 or more scales in first circumocular rings (counted together), and 25 or more in second rings (21 or less in first and 25 or less in second circumocular rings in V. bulgardaghica), and in having 2 scale rows between eye and supralabials (one in V. bulgardaghica). Vipera bornmuelleri is also separated from xanthina and bulgardaghica by having a higher number of intercanthals and inter-supraoculars (42 — 60 counted together, compared to between 30 and 50 in the latter two) (from Nilson & Andrén 1986: 42).|
Synonymy: Two specimens in Werner’s type series have been described as V. bulgardaghica by NILSON & ANDREN (1985) which is a synonym of Vipera xanthina (JOGER, pers. comm.).
Distribution: Has been erroneously reported from Jordan (e.g. by Harding and Welch 1980). For a map see Sindaco et al. 2013.
|Etymology||Named after Dr. Joseph Friedrich Nicolaus Bornmiiller (1862-1948), a German botanist and Director of the Herbarium, Weimar (1903-1938).|
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