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Montivipera bulgardaghica (NILSON & ANDREN, 1985)

IUCN Red List - Montivipera bulgardaghica - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Viperinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common Names 
SynonymVipera bulgardaghica NILSON & ANDREN 1985
Vipera bulgardaghica — NILSON et al. 1988
Vipera bulgardaghica — SCHMIDTLER et al. 1990
Vipera bulgardaghica — WELCH 1994: 121
Vipera bulgardaghica — DAVID & INEICH 1999
Vipera bulgardaghica — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999
Montivipera bulgardhaghica — PHELPS 2010
Montivipera bulgardaghica — WALLACH et al. 2014: 450 
DistributionSC Turkey, Syria

Type locality: Kar Boghaz, Bulgar Dag (= Bolkar Dagi), “Cilicischer Taurus” (Prov. Nigde).  
Reproduction(ovo-) viparous. 
TypesHolotype: GNM 1618, male ( (Göteborg Natural History Museum); paratype: NMW 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Nilson & Andreen 1986: 45 

Synonymy: V. bulgardaghica is considered as a synonym of Vipera xanthina by some authors (JOGER, pers. comm.). However, GARRIGUES et al. (2005) found that V. bulgardaghica appears to be more closely related to V. albizona and thus a member of the Montivipera clade. Mebert et al. 2020 treat albizona as a subspecies of bulgardaghica.

Distribution: for a map with localities in Turkey see Mebert et al. 2020: 172 (Fig. 2) and 180 (Fig. 11). For a map see Sindaco et al. 2013. 
  • Afsar, Murat; Batuhan Y. Yakin, Kerim Çiçek, Dinçer Ayaz 2019. A new subspecies of Ottoman viper, Montivipera xanthina (Gray, 1849), (Squamata: Viperidae) from Geyik Mountains, Mediterranean Turkey. Ecologica Montenegrina 22: 214-225 - get paper here
  • AHMAD, MUHAMMAD; KONRAD MEBERT, AROUB ALMASRI & NAHLA IBRAHIM. 2021. Status of Montivipera bulgardaghica (Werner, 1898) (Reptilia: Viperidae) in the Syrian Coastal Mountains. Zoology in the Middle East 67(3): 206–215. - get paper here
  • David,P. & Ineich,I. 1999. Les serpents venimeux du monde: systématique et répartition. Dumerilia 3: 3-499
  • Gemel, R.; G. Gassner & S. Schweiger 2019. Katalog der Typen der Herpetologischen Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien – 2018. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B 121: 33–248
  • Geniez, Philippe 2018. Snakes of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. Princeton University Press, 384 pp. - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Mebert, Konrad; Bayram Göçmen, Naşit İğci, Mert Kariş, Mehmet Anıl Oğuz, Mehmet Zülfü Yıldız, Alexandre Teynié, Nikolaus Stümpel, and Sylvain Ursenbacher 2020. Mountain Vipers in Central-Eastern Turkey: Huge Range Extensions for Four Taxa Reshape Decades of Misleading Perspectives. Herpetological Conservation and Biology, 15 (1): - get paper here
  • Nilson G; Andren C 1985. Systematics of the Vipera xanthina complex (Reptilia: Viperidae). 3. Taxonomic status of the Bulgar Dagh viper in south Turkey. Journal of Herpetology 19 (2): 276-283 - get paper here
  • Nilson, G., Andren, C., & Flärdh, B. 1988. Die Vipern der Türkei. Salamandra 24 (4): 215-247 - get paper here
  • Phelps, T. 2010. Old World Vipers. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 558 pp. [critical review in Sauria 33 (3): 19 and HR 43: 503]
  • Schmidtler, Josef Friedrich;Eiselt, Josef;Sigg, Harry 1990. Die subalpine Herpetofauna des Bolkar-Gebirges (Mittlerer Taurus, Südtürkei). Herpetofauna 12 (64): 11-20 - get paper here
  • Sindaco, R.; Alberto Venchi & Cristina Grieco 2013. The Reptiles of the Western Palearctic, Volume 2: Annotated Checklist and Distributional Atlas of the Snakes of Europe, North Africa, Middle East and Central Asia, with an Update to Volume 1. Edizioni Belvedere, Latina (Italy), 543 pp. - get paper here
  • Stümpel, Nikolaus; Mehdi Rajabizadeh, Aziz Avcı, Wolfgang Wüster, Ulrich Joger 2016. Phylogeny and diversification of mountain vipers (Montivipera, Nilson et al. 2001) triggered by multiple Plio-Pleistocene refugia and high-mountain topography in the Near and Middle East. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2016.04.025 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Welch, K. R. G. 1994. Snakes of the World. A Checklist. I. Venomous snakes. KCM Books, Somerset, England.
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