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Montivipera raddei (BOETTGER, 1890)

IUCN Red List - Montivipera raddei - Near Threatened, NT

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Viperinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
SubspeciesMontivipera raddei raddei (BOETTGER 1890)
Montivipera raddei kurdistanica (NILSON & ANDRÉN 1986) 
Common NamesE: Caucasus Viper
G: Armenische Bergotter, Raddes Otter 
SynonymVipera raddei BOETTGER 1890: 62
Vipera xanthina — STRAUCH 1869: 73 (not of GRAY 1849)
Coluber raddei — NIKOLSKY 1916: 250
Vipera lebetina raddei — SCHWARZ 1936: 240
Vipera albicornuta NILSON & ANDREN 1985
Daboia raddei — ENGELMANN et al. 1993
Vipera albicornuta — WELCH 1994: 119
Vipera (Montivipera) raddei — NILSON et al. 1999: 101
Vipera raddei — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 407
Vipera albicornuta — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999
Montivipera raddei — WERNING & WOLF 2007
Montivipera raddei — GARRIGUES et al. 2005
Vipera (Montivipera) raddei — VENCHI & SINDACO 2006
Montivipera albicornuta — RASTEGAR-POUYANI et al. 2008
Montivipera albicornuta — RAJABIZADEH et al. 2011
Montivipera raddei — WALLACH et al. 2014: 459
Montivipera albicornuta — SAFDARIAN et al. 2016
Montivipera albicornuta — TUNIYEV et al. 2019

Montivipera raddei raddei (BOETTGER 1890)
Vipera raddei BOETTGER 1890
Vipera xanthina raddei — MERTENS 1952
Daboia raddei raddei — OBST 1983: 233
Vipera raddei raddei — WELCH 1994: 123
Montivipera raddei raddei — RAJABIZADEH et al. 2011

Montivipera raddei kurdistanica (NILSON & ANDRÉN 1986)
Vipera raddei kurdistanica NILSON & ANDRÉN 1986
Vipera raddei kurdistanica — WELCH 1994: 123
Vipera kurdistanica — NILSON et al. 1999
Montivipera raddei kurdistanica — RAJABIZADEH et al. 2011
Montivipera raddei kurdistanica — KUCHARZEWSKI 2011 
DistributionS Armenia, Nakhichevan (Azerbaijan), NE Turkey, NW Iran

raddei: E Turkey, NW Iran, adjacent Turkmenistan. Type locality: Kasikoparan in Armenien. Elevation up to 3000 m.

albicornuta: NW Iran; type locality: Abhar in the Zanjan valley, between Tabriz and Teheran, NW Iran.

kurdistanica: SE Turkey, adjacent Iraq and Iran.  
Reproduction(ovo-) viparous. 
TypesSyntypes: lost, formerly ZMT (= Georgian Museum in Tbilisi), now lost fide NILSON & ANDREN 1986; Topotype: BMNH
Holotype: RSI 3098 [albicornuta]
Holotype: RSI 3128 [kurdistanica] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (raddei): Nilson & Andrén 1986: 52 

Synonymy: Vipera albicornuta NILSON & ANDREN 1985 is a synonym of V. raddei (GOLAY et al. 1993 and JOGER, pers. comm.) although several authors have treated it as separate species. GOLAY et al. 1993 also treat V. latifi as subspecies of V. raddei.

Distribution: for a map with localities in Turkey see Mebert et al. 2020: 172 (Fig. 2). For a map see Sindaco et al. 2013. 
Etymologynamed after G.V. Radde who sent the types to Boettger (but which were collected by Christoph). 
  • Arakelyan, Marine S.; Felix D. Danielyan, Claudia Corti, Roberto Sindaco, and Alan E. Leviton 2011. The Herpetofauna of Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh. SSAR, Salt Lake City, 154 pp. [ISBN: 978-0-916984-84-7.]
  • Behrooz, Roozbeh; Mohammad Kaboli, Véronique Arnal, Masoud Nazarizadeh, Atefeh Asadi, Amin Salmanian, Mohsen Ahmadi, Claudine Montgelard; 2018. Conservation Below The Species Level: Suitable Evolutionarily Significant Units Among Mountain Vipers (The Montivipera Raddei Complex) in Iran. Journal of Heredity, esy005, - get paper here
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Boettger, O. 1890. Eine neue Viper aus Armenien. Zool. Anz. 13: 62-64 - get paper here
  • Engelmann, W.E. et al. 1993. Lurche und Kriechtiere Europas. Neumann Verlag (Radebeul, Germany), 440 pp.
  • Ettling, Jeff; Aram Aghasyan, Levon Aghasyan 2012. Envenomation by an Armenian Viper, Montivipera raddei (Boettger, 1890): A Case History. Russ. J. Herpetol. 19 (3): 203–206 - get paper here
  • Ettling, Jeffery A. and Patricia G. Parker 2017. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Armenian Vipers, Montivipera raddei, in Two Landscapes: Implications for Conservation. Herpetological Conservation and Biology 12 (2) - get paper here
  • Ettling, Jeffery A.; Levon A. Aghasyan, Aram L. Aghasyan, and Patricia G. Parker 2013. Spatial Ecology of Armenian Vipers, Montivipera raddei, in a Human-Modified Landscape . Copeia Mar 2013, Vol. 2013, No. 1: 64-71. - get paper here
  • Ettling, Jeffery A.; Levon A. Aghasyan, Aram L. Aghasyan, Patricia G. Parker 2016. Spatial Ecology of Armenian Vipers, Montivipera raddei, in Two Different Landscapes: Human-Modified vs. Recovered-Natural. Russ. J. Herpetol. 23 (2): 93-102 - get paper here
  • Franzen,M. & Sigg, H. 1989. Bemerkungen zu einigen Schlangen Ostanatoliens. Salamandra 25 (3-4): 203-212 - get paper here
  • Garrigues, Thomas; Catherine Dauga; Elisabeth Ferquel; Valérie Choumet and Anna-Bella Failloux 2005. Molecular phylogeny of Vipera Laurenti, 1768 and the related genera Macrovipera (Reuss, 1927) and Daboia (Gray, 1842), with comments about neurotoxic Vipera aspis aspis populations. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution <br />Volume 35 (1): 35-47 - get paper here
  • Geniez, Philippe 2018. Snakes of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. Princeton University Press, 384 pp. - get paper here
  • Gruber, U. 2009. Die Schlangen Europas, 2. Aufl. Kosmos Naturführer, 266 pp.
  • Joger,U. & M. Meder. 1997. Taxonomic Resolution of the Vipera xanthina Complex. In: Herpetology '97, Abstracts of the Third World Congress of Herpetology 2-10 August 1997 Prague, Czech Republic, Rocek,Z. & S. Hart (eds.), 244 p.:106.
  • Kamali, Kamran 2020. A Field Guide to the Reptiles and Amphibians of Iran. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main, Germany ( 574 pp.
  • KUCHARZEWSKI, C 2011. OLD WORLD VIPERS. A natural history of the Azemiopinae and Viperinae von Tony PHELPS – Anmerkungen, Ergänzungen, Korrekturen. Sauria 33 (3): 19-42 - get paper here
  • Leviton,A.E.; Anderson,S.C.; Adler, K.; Minton,S.A. 1992. Handbook to Middle East Amphibians and Reptiles. SSAR, Oxford, Ohio (Contr. to Herpetol. No. 8), 1-252
  • Mallow, D. Ludwig, D. & Nilson, G. 2003. True Vipers: Natural History and Toxinology of Old World Vipers. Krieger, Malabar, Florida, 410 pp. [review in HR 35: 200, Reptilia 35: 74]
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  • Mebert, Konrad; Bayram Göçmen, Mert Karış, Naşit İğci, and Sylvain Ursenbacher 2016. The Valley of Four Viper Species and a Highland of Dwarfs: Fieldwork on Threatened Vipers in Northeastern Turkey. IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians 23 (1): 1-9 - get paper here
  • Mebert, Konrad; Bayram Göçmen, Naşİt İğcİ, Mehmet Anil Oğuz, Mert Kariş & Sylvain Ursenbacher 2015. New records and search for contact zones among parapatric vipers in the genus Vipera (barani, kaznakovi, darevskii, eriwanensis), Montivipera (wagneri, raddei), and Macrovipera (lebetina) in northeastern Anatolia. Herpetological Bulletin (133) - get paper here
  • Mebert, Konrad; Bayram Göçmen, Naşit İğci, Mert Kariş, Mehmet Anıl Oğuz, Mehmet Zülfü Yıldız, Alexandre Teynié, Nikolaus Stümpel, and Sylvain Ursenbacher 2020. Mountain Vipers in Central-Eastern Turkey: Huge Range Extensions for Four Taxa Reshape Decades of Misleading Perspectives. Herpetological Conservation and Biology, 15 (1): - get paper here
  • Mertens, R. 1952. Türkiye amfibi ve reptilleri hakkinda. Amphibien und Reptilien aus der Türkei. Rev. Istanbul Üniversitesi fen Fakültesi Mecmuasi, 17:41-75. - get paper here
  • Mertens, R., Darevsky,I.S. & K. Klemmer. 1967. Vipera latifii, eine neue Giftschlange aus dem Iran. Senckenbergiana biologica 48 (3): 161-168.
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  • Rajabizadeh, Mahdi; Dominique Adriaens, Mohammad Kaboli, Jaleh Sarafraz, Mohsen Ahmadi 2015. Dorsal colour pattern variation in Eurasian mountain vipers (genus Montivipera): A trade-off between thermoregulation and crypsis. Zoologischer Anzeiger 257: 1–9; doi:10.1016/j.jcz.2015.03.006 - get paper here
  • Rajabizadeh, Mehdi; Göran Nilson, and Haji Gholi Kami 2011. A New Species of Mountain Viper (Ophidia: Viperidae) from the Central Zagros Mountains, Iran. Russ. J. Herpetol. 18 (3): 235 – 240 - get paper here
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  • Rieser, Jennifer M.; Tai-De Li, Jessica L. Tingle, Daniel I. Goldman, Joseph R. Mendelson 2021. Functional consequences of convergently evolved microscopic skin features on snake locomotion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Feb 2021, 118 (6) e2018264118; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2018264118 - get paper here
  • Safdarian, Parvaneh; Fatemeh Todehdehghanb, Vida Hojatia & Abdolhossein Shiravi 2016. Seasonal changes in the testicular activity of the Iranian Mountain Viper, Montivipera albicornuta (Nilson & Andrén, 1985) (Reptilia: Viperidae). Zoology in the Middle East 62 (1): 39-45 - get paper here
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