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Morunasaurus annularis (O’SHAUGHNESSY, 1881)

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Higher TaxaHoplocercidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: ringed manticores, Ringed Spinytail Iguana
S: mantícoras de anillos 
SynonymHoplocercus annularis O’SHAUGHNESSY 1881: 244
Hoplocercus annularis — BOULENGER 1885: 200
Morunasaurus annularis — DUNN 1933
Morunasaurus annularis — PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970: 204
Morunasaurus annularis — CORREDOR & RENJIFO 1985
Morunasaurus annularis — LEHR 2002: 202
Morunasaurus annularis — TORRES-CARVAJAL et al. 2011 
DistributionEcuador (Amazonas), S Colombia

Type locality: Canelos, Ecuador, 1°34'60''S, 77°45'W, 631 m elevation.  
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.8.10.35 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. This species can be distinguished from Morunasaurus groi by having a discontinuous row of enlarged vertebral scales (row absent in M. groi), and caudal whorls of spiny scales separated by two (ventrally) and three (dorsally) transverse rows of scales (three and four in M. groi, respectively). Dunn (1933) stated that another differ- ence between M. annularis and M. groi is that the tail is compressed in the former and circular (presumably in cross section) in the latter; however, we find that the tail in both species is nearly circular in cross section. M. annularis differs from M. peruvianus (character states in parentheses) in having usually two femoral pores on each leg (3–4); four postrostrals (five); two postmentals (four), a smaller body size (maximum SVL 137 mm versus 153 mm in males, 118 mm versus 121 mm in females); and in lacking dark streaks on throat in females (streaks present) [from TORRES-CARVAJAL et al. 2011]. 
CommentNot in Peru fide TORRES-CARVAJAL et al. (2008) 
EtymologyNamed after the diminutive form (“annul-”) of Latin “anus” = ring. 
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Corredor,V. & Renjifo,J.M. 1985. Discovery of Morunasaurus groi DUNN (Sauria: Iguanidae) in Northwestern Colombia. Journal of Herpetology 19 (1): 162-164 - get paper here
  • Dunn,E.R. 1933. Amphibians and reptiles from El Valle de Antón, Panamá. Occ. Pap. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 8: 65-79. - get paper here
  • Köhler, G. 2003. A new species of Morunasaurus from Peru (Reptilia, Squamata, Hoplocercidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 82 (1/2): 235-242
  • Köhler, G. 2008. Reptiles of Central America. 2nd Ed. Herpeton-Verlag, 400 pp.
  • Köhler,G. et al. 1999. Zur Kenntnis von Morunasaurus annularis (O’SHAUGHNESSY 1881). Salamandra 35 (3): 181-190 - get paper here
  • Lehr, E. 2002. Amphibien und Reptilien in Peru. Natur und Tier-Verlag (Münster), 208 pp. - get paper here
  • O'shaughnessy,A.W.E. 1881. An account of the collection of lizards made by Mr. Buckley in Ecuador, and now in the British Museum, with descritions of the new species. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1881: 227-245 - get paper here
  • Peters, James A. & Donoso-Barros, Roberto 1970. Catalogue of the Neotropical Squamata: Part II. Lizards and Amphisbaenians. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 297: 293 pp. - get paper here
  • Torres-Carvajal O, Pazmiño-Otamendi G, Salazar-Valenzuela D. 2019. Reptiles of Ecuador: a resource-rich portal, with a dynamic checklist and photographic guides. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 13 (1): [General Section]: 209–229 (e178) - get paper here
  • Torres-Carvajal, O.; Almenáriz, A.; Valencia, J.; Yúnez-Muñoz, M. & Reyes, J.P. 2008. A new species of Enyalioides (Iguanidae: Hoplocercinae) from southwestern Ecuador. Pap. Avulsos Zool. (São Paulo) 48 (20): 227-235 - get paper here
  • Torres-Carvajal, Omar; RICHARD ETHERIDGE & KEVIN DE QUEIROZ 2011. A systematic revision of Neotropical lizards in the clade Hoplocercinae (Squamata: Iguania). Zootaxa 2752: 1–44 - get paper here
  • Wiens, John J. and Richard E. Etheridge 2003. Phylogenetic relationships of Hoplocercid lizards: coding and combining meristic, morphometric, and polymorphic data using step matrices. Herpetologica 59 (3): 375-398 - get paper here
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