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Myanophis thanlyinensis KÖHLER, KHAING & THAN, 2021

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Higher TaxaHomalopsidae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymMyanophis thanlyinensis KÖHLER, KHAING & THAN in KÖHLER et al. 2021 
DistributionMyanmar (Yangon)

Type locality: wetlands near campus of East Yangon University (16.74255, 96.28307; 6 m a.s.l.), Thanlyin, Yangon, Myanmar  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype. SMF 100707, an adult male, collected on 5 of November 2019 by Ni Lar Than and Gunther Köhler. Original field tag GK-7730.
Paratypes. EYU PaPa-0023 and SMF 100709 (original field tag PaPa-0019), two adult females from wetlands near campus of East Yangon University (16.740297, 96.285184; 6 m a.s.l.), Thanlyin, Yangon, Myanmar, collected on 14 of September 2018 by a local fishermen and received by Khin Pa Pa Khaing. SMF 100708 (original field tag GK-7731), an adult male from wetlands near campus of East Yangon University (16.74275, 96.31250; 6 m a.s.l.), Thanlyin, Yangon, Myanmar, collected on 15 of October 2019 by a local fishermen and received by Ni Lar Than. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus). A medium-sized Indochinese homalopsid snake with the following combination of characters: (1) dorsal scales smooth, row formula 21–21–19 or 21–21–17; (2) tail short, ratio tail length/SVL 0.185– 0.204 in males, 0.160–0.167 in females; (3) nasal scales separated; (4) 125–126 ventral scales in males, 120–122 in females; (5) 38–39 subcaudal scales in males, 32–34 in females; (6) hemipenis bilobed.

Diagnosis. A species of the genus Myanophis that differs from all other homalopsid species by the follow- ing combination of characters: (1) dorsal scales smooth, row formula 21–21–19 or 21–21–17; (2) tail short, ratio TaL/SVL 0.185–0.204 in males, 0.160–0.167 in females; (3) nasal scales separated; (4) 125–126 ventral scales in males, 120–122 in females; (5) 38–39 subcaudal scales in males, 32–34 in females; and (6) hemipenis bilobed. Phylogenetically, (based on analyses of 16S and MT-CYB sequences), Myanophis thanlyinensis gen. nov., sp. nov. differs from its closest relatives, Myrrophis and Gyiophis, by having a bilobed hemipenis (vs. unilobed). Further, Myanophis thanlyinensis gen. nov., sp. nov. differs from the species of Myrrophis by having 125–126 ventral scales in males, 120–122 in females (vs. 137–162, 137–164, respectively), and 38–39 subcaudal scales in males, 32–34 in females (vs. 39–55, 37–52, respectively). Myanophis thanlyinensis gen. nov., sp. nov. differs further from the species of Gyiophis by lacking dark blotches along flank (vs. having blotches), and by having 21 dorsal scales rows at midbody (vs. 25 scales). The following other homalopsid species share with M. thanlyinensis gen. nov., sp. nov. the combination of having smooth dorsal scales in 21 rows at midbody, reducing to 17 or 19 rows anterior to vent and fewer than 130 ventral scales: Enhydris chanardi, E. innominata, E. jagorii, and E. longicauda. However, all species have more than 50 subcaudal scales in males and more than 40 in females (vs. 38–39, 32–34, respectively, in M. thanlyinensis gen. nov., sp. nov.), and a TaL/SVL of >0.22 in males, and >0.17 in females (vs. 0.185–0.204, 0.160–0.167, respectively). Also, Enhydris jagorii and E. longicauda have 23–27 dorsal scales rows on neck (vs. 21 in Myanophis Thanlyinensis gen. nov., sp. nov.).

Coloration in life (Fig. 5; colors in parentheses according to Köhler 2012): Dorsal ground color Olive Brown (color 278), scale rows 4 and 5 slightly darker (Sepia 286) and scale rows 1 to 3 Pale Cinnamon (55) with Hair Brown (277) blotch on anterior portion of each scale; ventral scales Pale Cinnamon (55) with Hair Brown (277) suffusion of anterior portion of each scale; iris Olive Brown (278). 
CommentType species: Myanophis thanlyinensis is the type species of the genus Myanophis KÖHLER, KHAING & THAN 2021. 
EtymologyThe generic name is derived from Myanmar’s abbreviated name “Myan” and the Greek “ophis”, meaning “snake”. The generic name is feminine.
The species epithet refers to the city of Thanlyin, a major port city of Myanmar, located across the Bago River southeast of the city of Yangon, where the type series of M. thanlyinensis gen. nov., sp. nov. was collected. 
References
  • Köhler G, Khaing KPP, Than NL, Baranski D, Schell T, Greve C, Janke A, Pauls SU 2021. A new genus and species of mud snake from Myanmar (Reptilia, Squamata, Homalopsidae). Zootaxa 4915 (3): 301-325
 
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