You are here » home advanced search Nerodia erythrogaster

Nerodia erythrogaster (FORSTER, 1771)

IUCN Red List - Nerodia erythrogaster - Least Concern, LC

Can you confirm these amateur observations of Nerodia erythrogaster?

Add your own observation of
Nerodia erythrogaster »

Find more photos by Google images search: Google images

Higher TaxaColubridae (Natricinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Plainbelly Water Snake
erythrogaster: Redbelly Water Snake
flavigaster: Yellowbelly Water Snake
neglecta: Copperbelly Water Snake
transversa: Blotched Water Snake
G: Rotbauch-Wassernatter, Rotbauchige Schwimmnatter
S: Culebra de Agua de Vientre Plano 
SynonymColuber erythrogaster FORSTER 1771: 364
Nerodia erythrogaster — BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 40
Nerodia woodhousii BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 42
Tropidonotus erythrogaster — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 570
Tropidonotus transversus HALLOWELL 1852: 177
Nerodia transversa — BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 148
Nerodia couchii KENNICOTT 1860
Natrix fasciata transversa — COPE 1892: 336
Natrix fasciata transversa — MCLAIN 1899
Natrix sipedon erythrogaster — ALLEN 1932
Natrix transversa — SMITH & LEONARD 1934
Natrix erythrogaster transversa — BURT 1935
Natrix erythrogaster — BURT 1935
Natrix erythrogaster — CLAY 1938
Natrix erythrogaster erythrogaster — CONANT 1949: 10
Natrix erythrogaster flavigaster CONANT 1949
Natrix erythrogaster neglecta CONANT 1949: 5
Natrix erythrogaster transversa — CONANT 1949: 12
Natrix erythrogaster flavigaster — SHANNON & SMITH 1949
Natrix erythrogaster bogerti CONANT 1953
Natrix erythrogaster alta CONANT 1963
Natrix bogerti bogerti — SMITH & SMITH 1976
Nerodia erythrogaster bogerti — FITCH 1981
Nerodia erythrogaster — STEBBINS 1985: 196
Nerodia erythrogaster bogerti — MCCRANIE 1990
Nerodia erythrogaster alta — MCCRANIE 1990
Nerodia erythrogaster erythrogaster — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 150
Nerodia erythrogaster flavigaster — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 150
Nerodia erythrogaster transversa — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 151
Nerodia erythrogaster — LINER 1994
Nerodia erythrogastra — BÖHME 2005
Nerodia erythrogaster transversa — CROTHER 2000: 72
Nerodia erythrogaster erythrogaster — CROTHER 2000: 72
Nerodia erythrogaster flavigaster — CROTHER 2000: 72
Nerodia erythrogaster neglecta — CROTHER 2000: 72
Nerodia erythrogaster erythrogaster — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 134
Nerodia erythrogaster neglecta — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 136
Nerodia erythrogaster flavigaster — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 137
Nerodia erythrogaster transversa — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 139
Nerodia erythrogaster neglecta — MARSHALL et al 2009
Nerodia erythrogaster neglecta — ROE et al. 2013
Nerodia erythrogaster — WALLACH et al. 2014: 483
Nerodia erythrogaster flavigaster — GUYER et al. 2018
Nerodia erythrogaster erythrogaster — GUYER et al. 2018 
DistributionUSA (Texas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, Tennessee, Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, N Florida, South Carolina, E North Carolina, Virginia, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, S Michigan, SE Iowa, Delaware),
Mexico (Durango, Zacatecas, Tamaulipas, Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, Chihuahua)

alta: Mexico (Zacatecas); Type locality, "in the Rio Trujillo (known locally as the Rio Florido), at the village of Rio Florido, approximately 15miles NW of Fresnillo, Zacatecas.”

bogerti: Mexico (Durango); Type locality, "in the Rio Nazas, near La Goma, approximately 15miles southwest of Lerdo, Durango."

erythrogaster: Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, N Florida; Neotype locality: near Parker's Ferry, Edisto River Swamp, Charleston County, South Carolina.

flavigaster: Florida, E Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia; Type locality: Frenier Beach, St. John the Baptist Parish, Louisiana.

neglecta: Ohio; Type locality: approximately 3 miles east of Mount Victory, Hardin County, Ohio

transversa: Askansas, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas; Type locality: Arkansas, Boundary of Creek Nation, Arkansas River.  
TypesNeotype: USNM 126890
Holotype: AMNH 68695 [meglecta]
Holotype: AMNH 84152, a young adult male, collected by Roger Conant, 19July 1959 [alta]
Holotype: AMNH 73163, an adult female, collected by Roger Conant, 29 September 1949 [bogerti]
Holotype: ANSP 5044, USNM 1316 [transversa]
Holotype: USNM 1308 [Nerodia woodhousii]
Syntypes: USNM 1314, 1319 [Nerodia couchii] 
DiagnosisDefinition. A large, stout bodied (as an adult), semi-aquatic natricine snake ranging in size from 190-330 mm at birth to 1575 mm in the largest known specimen (adult males average significantly smaller than adult females). The head is wider posteriorly than anteriorly and is distinctly wider than the neck in mature adults. The rostral is wider than high, and visible from above. The nasals are divided. The parietals are widest anteriorly. The mental is triangular. Two pairs of chinshields are present, with the posterior pair not in contact medially. This species has 132-159 ventrals without any significant sexual dimorphism; 67-90 subcaudals in males, 59-79 in females; 20-27 (usually 23-25) scale rows (keeled throughout length of body and with 2 apical pits on most scales) at midbody and 16-21 (usually 17-19) anterior to base of tail; 7-10 (usually 8) supralabials, the 4th or 4th and 5th normally entering the orbit; 8-11 (usually 10) infralabials; 1-2 (usually 1) preoculars; 1-4 (usually 3) postoculars; 1 anterior temporal; usually 3 but often 2 posterior temporals; loreal single; anal plate usually divided, rarely single. (McCranie 1990)

Coloration and pattern show marked ontogenetic variation. “Juveniles are strongly patterned with a row of middorsal blotches in the form of saddles and a single row of smaller lateral blotches on each side. The lateral blotches usually alternate with the middorsal series but an irregular fusing occurs in some specimens. The blotches become paler and the ground color darker, with the pattern becoming progressively less conspicuous as the snakes increase in size and age, until all traces of pattern are lost in most specimens of some races (see subspecies definitions). Adult dorsal and ventral coloration is highly variable and is diagnostic in each subspecies. The dorsal ground color may be pinkish, pinkish brown, reddish brown, chocolate brown, olive brown, brownish gray or olive, pale gray, olive gray, greenish gray, or black. The ventral coloration may be reddish or yellowish, or a mixture of the two, and plain in some subspecies, or with darker pigment on bases and/or lateral edges of ventrals in some specimens of two other subspecies, or heavily invaded by dorsal color laterally and across anterior margins of each ventral scale in another subspecies.” (McCranie 1990)

Hemipenis: "Shaft subcylindrical and ornamented with spines and spinules that diminish in size distally; nude patches at the base adjacent to the basal and accessory hooks. Apex bilobed and nude. Sulcus simple and terminating at the junction of the two lobes. One large basal hook (the free edge 2.5 mm to 3.5 mm long in snakes measuring 750 mm to 1000 mm in total length) lateral to the sulcus and followed distally by several small spines. An accessory hook on the opposite side of the sulcus, more distal than and smaller than the large basal hook, and followed distally by several small spines." (Conant 1969:26, McCranie 1990)

Definition (alta). “Adults with a light olive-brown to a brownish olive dorsum, usually with slightly darker middorsal blotches; lateral blotches usually evident, 1 or fewer scale rows wide; venter plain, pale yellow to pale yellowish-orange to dull orange; light parietal spots and post-parietal streaks sometimes present. Scutellation is as follows: ventrals 138-144; subcaudals 84-90 in males, 69-76 in fe males; only 4th supralabial entering orbit; scale rows at midbody usually 25, occasionally 26, rarely 24.” (McCranie 1990)

Definition (bogerti). “Adults with a pale pinkish to pale pinkish brown dorsum, usually with slightly darker middorsal blotches; lateral blotches usually evident, 1 or fewer scale rows wide; venter plain yellowish-pinkish, temporal region reddish; light post-parietal streaks sometimes present. Scutellation is as follows: ventrals 141-148; subcaudals 82-85 in males, 68-76 in females; usually only 4th supralabial entering orbit; scale rows at midbody usually 24 or 25, rarely 23 or 26.” (McCranie 1990)

Definition (flavigaster). “Adults with a usually plain grayish dorsum (pale gray to olive gray to greenish gray), although many specimens have traces of light crossbands in the middorsal region; venter plain yellow, often washed with orange, and occasionally with darker pigment on bases and/or lateral edges of ventral scales; occasionally with light parietal spots or post-parietal streaks. Scutellation is as follows: ventral 137-156; subcaduals 67-88 in males, 59-77 in females; usually 4th and 5th supralabials entering orbit; scale rows at midbody usually 23, often 25, rarely 20-22, 24, or 26-27.” (McCranie 1990)

Definition (neglecta). “Adults with a plain black or very dark brown dorsum, almost al ways without any traces of light crossbands; venter reddish (orange red to red to scarlet), often heavily invaded by dorsal ground color on lateral edges and across anterior margins of each ventral scale, especially towards posterior portion of body; almost always no light parietal spots or post -parietal streaks. Scutellation is as follows: ventrals 144-158; subcaudals 68-84 in males, 62-74 in females; usually 4th and 5th supralabials entering orbit; scale rows at midbody usually 23, rarely 21-22 or 25.” (McCranie 1990)

Definition (transversa). Adults with a highly variable dorsal coloration that can be almost any shade of gray or brown, normally with well-patterned light, dark-bordered crossbands in the middorsal region (large adults sometimes are almost uniformly dark); lateral blotches usually evident, 1 1/2 to 2 scale rows wide; venter plain yellow, often with an orangish tinge, and often with darker pigment on bases and/ or lateral edges of ventral scales; light parietal spots and post-parietal streaks almost always present. Scutellation is as follows: ventrals 132-159; subcaudals 75-87 in males, 61-79 in females; usually 4th and 5th supralabials entering orbit; scale rows at midbody usually 25, often 23, sometimes 27, rarely 24 or 26.” (McCranie 1990) 
CommentSubspecies: Makowsky et al. (2010) found little support for the recognized subspecies as either independent evolutionary lineages or geographically circumscribed units and conclude that although some genetic and niche differentiation has occurred, most populations assigned to N. erythrogaster appear to represent a single, widespread species. Thus we follow Boundy et al. in not recognizing any subspecies.

Diet: mostly frogs 
EtymologyThe name erythrogaster is derived from the Greek words erythro- and gaster, meaning red and belly, respectively (although the belly is often rather yellow or orange).

Etymology of other names are: alta (Latin, altus), meaning high, refers to the uplands where this subspecies occurs;
bogerti honors Charles M. Bogert;
flavigaster(Latin,flavi; Greek, gaster),meaning yellow and belly, respectively;
neglecta (Latin, neglectio), meaning neglect, apparently in reference to the neglected status of this subspecies prior to its formal recognition;
transversa (Latin prefix trans, meaning across; Latin, versus, meaning to turn), in reference to the dorsal crossbands retained in the adults of this subspecies. 
  • Akeret, B. 2013. Energiewende im Terarrium. Ideen und Vorschläge, wie man Stromverbrauch und Energiekosten bei der Haltung von Terrarientieren senken kann. Reptilia (Münster) 18 (99): 18-31 - get paper here
  • Allen, Morrow J. 1932. A survey of the Amphibians and reptiles of Harrison County, Mississippi. American Museum Novitates (542): 1-20 - get paper here
  • Arbaugh, Ron, Travis Arbaugh and David A. Steen. 2015. Nerodia erythrogaster (plain-bellied watersnake) predation. Herpetological Review 46 (4): 647-648 - get paper here
  • Baird, S. F. and C. Girard. 1853. Catalogue of North American Reptiles in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Part 1.-Serpents. Smithsonian Inst., Washington, xvi + 172 pp. - get paper here
  • Barber, Diane M., Vicky A. Poole, Carlos R. Sanchez, Patrick Roady and Matthew C. Allender. 2016. Snake fungal infection associated with Fusarium found in Nerodia erythrogaster transversa (Blotched Water Snake) in Texas, USA. Herpetological Review 47 (1): 39-42 - get paper here
  • Belford, Thomas J. 2015. Geographic Distribution: Nerodia erythrogaster (plain-bellied watersnake). Herpetological Review 46 (3): 386 - get paper here
  • Böhme, W. 2005. Der “Savannah River Ecology Site” und seine herpetologischen Highlights. Herpetofauna 25 (142): 13-21 - get paper here
  • Bufalino, A.P. & Scott, A.F. 2008. Statistical Analyses of Pattern Variation in the Copper-bellied (Nerodia erythrogaster neglecta) and Yellow-bellied (N. e. f lavigaster) Watersnake Subspecies. American Midland Naturalist 159: 30-41 - get paper here
  • Burbrink FT, Futterman I. 2019. Female‐ biased gape and body-size dimorphism in the New World watersnakes (tribe: Thamnophiini) oppose predictions from Rensch's rule. Ecol Evol. 00:1–10
  • Burt, Charles E. 1935. Further records of the ecology and distribution of amphibians and reptiles in the middle west. American Midland Naturalist 16 (3): 311-336 - get paper here
  • Camper, J.D. 2009. Core Terrestrial Habitat Around Wetlands: Contributions from the Spatial Ecology of the Redbelly Watersnake (Nerodia erythrogaster erythrogaster) Copeia 2009 (3): 556-562. - get paper here
  • Camper, Jeffrey D. 2019. The Reptiles of South Carolina. University of South Carolina Press, 288 pp. [review in Copeia 107 (3): 590, 2019] - get paper here
  • CHRIS T. McALLISTER. 2021. NERODIA ERYTHROGASTER (Plain-Bellied Watersnake). DIET. Herpetological Review 52 (2): 427–428. - get paper here
  • Clay, William M. 1938. A synopsis of the North American Water Snakes of the genus Natrix. Copeia 1938 (4): 173-182 - get paper here
  • Collins, J.T. & Collins, S.L. 2009. A pocket guide to Kansas snakes, 2nd ed. Great Plains Nature Center, Wichita, 69 pp.
  • Collins, J.T. & Collins, S.L. 2010. A pocket guide to Kansas snakes, 3rd ed. Great Plains Nature Center, Wichita, 69 pp.
  • Conant, R. 1949. Two new races of Natrix erythrogaster. Copeia 1949 (1): 1-15 - get paper here
  • Conant, Roger 1938. The Reptiles of Ohio. American Midland Naturalist 20 (1): 1-200 - get paper here
  • Conant, Roger 1953. Three new water snakes of the genus Natrix from Mexico. Natural History Miscellanea (126): 1-9 - get paper here
  • Conant, Roger 1963. Another new water snake of the genus Natrix from the Mexican plateau. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 76: 169-172 - get paper here
  • Conant,R. & Collins,J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern/Central North America, 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin (Boston/New York), xx + 450 p.
  • Cope, E.D. 1892. The Batrachia and Reptilia of North West Texas. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1892: 331-337 - get paper here
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Degenhardt, William G.; C. W. Painter, and A. H. Price 1996. Amphibians and reptiles of New Mexico. Univ. New Mexico Press, 431 pp.
  • Dixon, James R. 2000. Amphibians and reptiles of Texas, second edition. Texas A&M University Press, 421 pp.
  • Duméril, A.M.C., G. BIBRON & A.H.A. DUMÉRIL 1854. Erpétologie générale ou Histoire Naturelle complète des Reptiles. Vol. 7 (partie 1). Paris, xvi + 780 S. - get paper here
  • Enge, Kevin M. 2009. Venomous and non-venomous snakes of Florida. Publication of the Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission. 16 pp.
  • Ernst, C.H., & Barbour, R.W. 1989. Snakes of eastern North America. George Mason Univ. Press, Fairfax, VA 282 pp.
  • Everitt, B & Phillips, J; 2019. Nerodia erythrogaster (Plain-bellied Watersnake) and Nerodia fasciata (Southern Watersnake) Death feigning. Herpetological Review 50 (3): 598 - get paper here
  • Forster, J.R. 1771. In Bossu, Travels through that part of North America formerly called Louisiana, Vol. 1. London, T. Davies - get paper here
  • Gibbons, J. W. & Mike Dorcas 2004. North American Water Snakes. University of Oklahoma Press, 496 pp.
  • Gibbons, J. Whitfield 1999. Nerodia erythrogaster (Plain-bellied Water Snake). Size. Herpetological Review 30 (1): 47 - get paper here
  • Guyer, Craig; Mark A. Bailey, and Robert H. Mount 2018. Lizards and snakes of Alabama. University of Alabama Press, 397 pp. - get paper here
  • Hallowell,E. 1852. Descriptions of new species of reptiles inhabiting North America. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 6: 177-182 - get paper here
  • Hampton, Paul M. H 2018. ECOLOGY OF THE YELLOW-BELLIED WATERSNAKE (NERODIA ERYTHROGASTER FLAVIGASTER) IN AN EASTERN TEXAS FLOODPLAIN. The Southwestern Naturalist Sep 2018 Vol. 63, No. 3: 182-185 - get paper here
  • Heimes, P. 2016. Snakes of Mexico. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 572 pp
  • Hernandez T, Herr MW, Stevens S, Cork K, Medina-Nava C, Vialpando CJ, Warfel T, Fields N, Brodie C, Graham SP 2019. New distribution records for amphibians and reptiles in eastern Chihuahua, Mexico. Check List 15(1): 79-86 - get paper here
  • HIll, R. L. 2012. Geographic distribution: Nerodia erythrogaster erythrogaster (red-bellied watersnake). Herpetological Review 43: 621 - get paper here
  • HIll, R. L., Lock, B., Brothers, D. & Rose, C. 2012. Geographic distribution: Nerodia erythrogaster erythrogaster (red-bellied watersnake). Herpetological Review 43: 621 - get paper here
  • Hofmann, E.P. 2018. Nerodia erythrogaster (Plain-bellied Watersnake) Defensive behavior. Herpetological Review 49 (1): 135. - get paper here
  • Housefield, S. 1984. Literature: Observations on the Yellow-Bellied Water Snake (Nerodia erythrogaster flavigaster). Litteratura Serpentium 4 (5/6)198 - get paper here
  • Hudson, Bryan D., Zach I. Felix, Justin Oguni, Brad Wilson, Kira McEntire, Theresa Stratmann, Daniel D. Duff and Zack Seymour. 2015. New geographic distributional records of amphbians and reptiles in Georgia, USA. Herpetological Review 46 (4): 595-596 - get paper here
  • Irwin, Kelly J. 2004. Arkansas Snake Guide. Arkansas Game & Fish Commission, Little Rock, 50 pp.
  • Jensen, John B.; Carlos D. Camp, Whit Gibbons, & Matt J. Elliott 2008. Amphibians and reptiles of Georgia. University of Georgia Press, 575 pp.
  • Jones D, Foshee B, Fitzgerald L 2021. A herpetological survey of Edith L. Moore Nature Sanctuary. Check List 17(1): 27-38 - get paper here
  • Keck, Michael B. 1994. A new technique for sampling semi-aquatic snake populations. Herpetological Natural History 2 (2): 101-103
  • Kingsbury, B.A. & C.J. Coppola 2000. Hibernacula of the Copperbelly Water Snake (Nerodia erythrogaster neglecta) in Southern Indiana and Kentucky Journal of Herpetology 34 (2): 294-298. - get paper here
  • Kornacker, P.M. & U. Dederichs 2009. Der Big-Bend-Nationalpark und seine Reptilien. Teil 2: Schlangen. Reptilia (Münster) 14 (75): 51-57 - get paper here
  • Lawson, R. 1987. Molecular studies of Thamnophiine snakes: 1. The phylogeny of the genus Nerodia. Journal of Herpetology 21 (2): 140-157 - get paper here
  • Lazcano D, Nevárez-de los Reyes M, García-Padilla E, Johnson JD, Mata-Silva V, DeSantis DL, Wilson LD. 2019. The herpetofauna of Coahuila, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 13(2) [General Section]: 31–94 (e189) - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal JA, Smith GR, Gadsden-Esparza H, Valdez-Lares R, Woolrich-Piña GA 2018. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of Durango, Mexico, with comparisons with adjoining states. ZooKeys 748: 65-87 - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal, Julio A. (ed.) 2015. Amphibians and Reptiles of the US - Mexico Border States / Anfibios y Reptiles de los Estados de la Frontera México - Estados Unidos. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas. x + 614 pp.; ISBN 978-1-62349-306-6. - get paper here
  • Linzey, D.W., & Clifford, M.J. 1981. Snakes of Virgina. Univ. Press of Virginia, Charlottesville 159 pp.
  • Luef, H. 2008. North Carolinas südliche Küstenebene - Ein Paradies für Reptilienfreunde. Reptilia (Münster) 13 (70): 38-49 - get paper here
  • Makowsky, Robert; John C. Marshall Jr., John McVay, Paul T. Chippindale, Leslie J. Rissler 2010. Phylogeographic analysis and environmental niche modeling of the plain-bellied watersnake (Nerodia erythrogaster) reveals low levels of genetic and ecological differentiation. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 55 (3): 985-995 - get paper here
  • Marshall Jr., John C.; Bruce A. Kingsbury; Dennis J. Minchella 2009. Microsatellite variation, population structure, and bottlenecks in the threatened copperbelly water snake. Conservation Genetics 10:465–476 - get paper here
  • McALLISTER, CHRIS T. 2021. NERODIA ERYTHROGASTER (Plain-Bellied Watersnake). DIET. Herpetological Review 52 (1): 165–166. - get paper here
  • McCranie J R 1990. Nerodia erythrogaster (Forster). Plainbelly water snake. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 500: 1-8 - get paper here
  • McLain, R. B. 1899. Notes on a collection of reptiles. Privately published, Wheeling, WV: 1-5 (SSAR Misc. Publ. reprint)
  • MIller, B T & Warren, C R; 2019. Geographic Distribution: Nerodia erythrogaster (Plain-bellied Watersnake) USA: Tennessee: Lawrence Co. Herpetological Review 50 (3): 530 - get paper here
  • Miller, B T; Hall, E M & Rollins-Smith, L A 2018. Geographic Distribution: Nerodia erythrogaster (Plain-bellied Watersnake). Herpetological Review 49 (3): 506 - get paper here
  • Mitchell, J. C. & Reay, K.K. 1999. Atlas of amphibians and reptiles in Virginia. Specialty Publication 1, VA Dept of Game and Fisheries, 122 pp. - get paper here
  • Mitchell, J.C. 1994. The reptiles of Virginia. Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, ca. 350 pp.
  • Myers, C.W. & R.G. Zweifel 1993. Biographical Sketch and Bibliography of Charles Mitchill Bogert, 1908-1992 Herpetologica 49 (1): 133-146. - get paper here
  • Nevárez-de-los-Reyes, Manuel, David Lazcano, Elí García-Padilla, Vicente Mata-Silva, Jerry D. Johnson and Larry David Wilson. 2016. The Herpetofauna of Nuevo León, Mexico: Composition, Distribution, and Conservation. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (3): 558–638 - get paper here
  • Palis, J. G. 2016. Snakes of “Snake Road”. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 51: 1 - get paper here
  • PALIS, JOHN G. & ERIN L. PALMER. 2022. NERODIA ERYTHROGASTER (Plain-bellied Watersnake). SCAVENGING. Herpetological Review 53(3): 515–516.
  • Palmer, W.M. & Braswell, A.L. 1995. Reptiles of North Carolina. Univ. North Carolina Press
  • Parker, William S. and Maples, Vicki T. 2016. Nerodia erythrogaster (Plain-bellied Watersnake) Reproduction. Herpetological Review 47 (4): 685-686 - get paper here
  • Perkins, Micah W. and Eason, Perri K. 2017. Nerodia erythrogaster (Plain-bellied Watersnake) Diet. Herpetological Review 48 (1): 215-216 - get paper here
  • Perkins, Micah W. and Perri K. Eason 2019. The relationship of head morphology and diet among three sympatric watersnake species. Amphibia-Reptilia 40 (1): 65-77 - get paper here
  • Perry, David A. 2013. Virginia Herpetological Society Survey of Back Bay NWR and False Cape State Park. Catesbeiana 33 (2): 48-61 - get paper here
  • Phillips, JG 2016. Updated Geographic Distributions of Michigan Herpetofauna: a Synthesis of Old and New Sources. The Journal of North American Herpetology 2016: 45–69 - get paper here
  • Pierson, T. & Brown, G. 2012. Geographic distribution: Nerodia erythrogaster (plain-bellied watersnake). Herpetological Review 43: 621 - get paper here
  • Roe, John H.; Omar Attum, and Bruce A. Kingsbury 2013. Vital Rates and Population Demographics in Declining and Stable Watersnake Populations. Herp. Cons. Biol. 8 (3) - get paper here
  • Shannon, Frederick A.;Smith, Hobart M. 1949. Herpetological results of the University of Illinois field expedition, Spring 1949. I. Introduction, Testudines, Serpentes. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 52 (4): 494-509 - get paper here
  • Siegel, Dustin S.; Stanley E. Trauth, Justin L. Rheubert, Brian Rabe, Brenton Ruopp, Aurélien Miralles, Christopher M. Murray, and Robert D. Aldridge 2014. Novel Cloacal Glands in Snakes: The Phylogenetic Distribution of Ventral Urodaeal Glands in Thamnophiini. Herpetologica 70 (3): 279-289. - get paper here
  • Smith, Hobart M.;Leonard, Arthur B. 1934. Distributional records of reptiles and amphibians in Oklahoma. American Midland Naturalist 15: 190-196 - get paper here
  • Stebbins,R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • Stevenson, D. J., Steen, D. A. & Wallace, M., Sr. 2012. Nerodia erythrogaster erythrogaster (red-bellied watersnake) necrophagy by dung beetles (Scarabaeinae). Herpetological Review 43: 347 - get paper here
  • STEVENSON, DIRK J. et al. 2021. New County Records for Amphibians and Reptiles in Georgia, USA. Herpetological Review 52 (2): 350-359
  • Tennant, A. 2003. Snakes of North America - Eastern and Central Regions, revised edition. Lone Star Books, 605 pp.
  • Tennant, A. & Bartlett, R.D. 2000. Snakes of North America - Eastern and Central Regions. Gulf Publishing, Houston, TX, 588 pp.
  • Terán-Juárez, Sergio A., Elí García Padilla, Vicente Mata-Silva, Jerry D. Johnson and Larry David Wilson. 2016. The herpetofauna of Tamaulipas, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (1): 43–113 - get paper here
  • Ukuwela, K.D.B., de Silva, A., Sivaruban, A. et al. 2022. Diversity, distribution, and natural history of the marine snakes of Sri Lanka. Marine Biodiversity 52, 24 (2022) - get paper here
  • Valdez-Lares, R.; R. Muñiz-Martínez; E.Gadsden; G. Aguirre-León; G. Castañeda-Gaytán; R. Gonzalez-Trápaga 2013. Checklist of amphibians and reptiles of the state of Durango, México. Check List 9 (4):714-724 - get paper here
  • VanDeWalle, Terry 2022. The Natural History of the Snakes and Lizards of Iowa. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City, Iowa, 384 pp. ISBN: 978-1- 609388-37-9. [review in HR 54 (1): 151] - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Walle, Jason E. and Mary T. Mandt 2005. Nerodia erythrogaster neglecta (Copper-bellied Watersnake) Size record. Herpetological Review 36 (2):196. - get paper here
  • Watson, Noel P. and Susan H. Watson 2018. Nerodia erythrogaster (Plain-bellied Watersnake). Catesbeiana 38 (2): 116 - get paper here
  • Werler, John E. & James R. Dixon 2000. Texas Snakes. University of Texas Press, 544 pages
  • Werning, Heiko 2012. Die Reptilien und Amphibien des Südwestens. Draco 13 (50): 18-60 - get paper here
External links  
Is it interesting? Share with others:

Please submit feedback about this entry to the curator