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Neusticurus bicarinatus (LINNAEUS, 1758)

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Cercosaurinae), Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Two-faced Neusticurus
Portuguese: Lagartinho-de-Máscara-Alaranjada, Lagarto-de-Folhiço 
SynonymLacerta bicarinata LINNAEUS 1758: 201
Lacerta Bicarinata — LACÉPÈDE 1788
Lacerta bicarinata — BONNATERRE 1789
Cordylus bicarinatus — MEYER 1795: 17
Lacerta bicarinata — SHAW & NODDER 1813: plate 1063
Thorictis bicarinatus — WAGLER 1830: 153 (fide MASSARY & HOOGMOED)
Teius A. [da] Bicarinata — GRAY 1831: 29
Neusticurus bicarinatus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 64
Neusticurus (Custa) bicarinatus — O’SHAUGHNESSY 1879: 295
Custa bicarinata — MÜLLER 1880
Neusticurus bicarinatus — PETERS et al. 1970: 206
Neusticurus rudis — GASC 1990: 55 (part.)
Neusticurus bicarinatus — CASTOE et al. 2004 
DistributionGuiana, Suriname, French Guiana, E Venezuela, Guyana,
Brazil (Para, Rondonia, Amapa, Maranhao, Amazonas)

Type locality: “Indiis” (in error)  
TypesHolotype: UUZM (= ZMUU) 70 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Neusticurus differs from members of Alopoglossinae by having its tongue covered in imbricate, scale-like papillae instead of oblique plicae (Harris, 1994), from Gymnophthalminae by having moveable eyelids, from Rhachisaurinae by having external ear openings, and from Ecpleopinae by having heterogeneous dorsal scalation. Within Cercosaurinae (sensu Castoe et al., 2004), Neusticurus differs from all genera except Echinosaura, Potamites and Teuchocercus by having heterogeneous dorsal scales. It differs from Echinosaura by lacking basal spines on the hemipenes, from Teuchocercus by lacking conical scales on the tail, and from Potamites (character states for Potamites in parentheses) by having a strongly compressed tail (slightly compressed), ventral scales imbricate (subimbricate ventral scales), and hemipenes lacking calcareous spinules on flounces (calcareous spinules on hemipenes) (after DOAN & CASTOE 2005). 
CommentSynonymy: Lacerta bicarinata LINNAEUS 1758 has been confused with Tupinambis lacertinus in the older literature. See entry for Crocodilurus lacertinus for more details.

Type Species: Lacerta bicarinata LINNAEUS 1758 is the type species of the genus Neusticurus DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839.

Distribution: Probably also in Bolivia (fide LANGSTROTH 2005). 
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  • Avila-Pires, Teresa C. S. and Laurie J. Vitt. 1998. A new species of Neusticurus (Reptilia: Gymnophthalmidae) from the Rio Juruá, Acre, Brazil. Herpetologica 54 (2):235-245. - get paper here
  • Bonnaterre, P.J. 1789. Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature, . . . Erpétologie. Panckoucke, Paris, xxviii+71 pp. (+ plates + index) - get paper here
  • Castoe, T.A.; Doan, T.M. & Parkinson, C.L. 2004. Data partitions and complex models in Bayesian analysis: the phylogeny of Gymnophthalmid lizards. Systematic Biology 53 (3): 448-469 - get paper here
  • Cole, Charles J.; Carol R. Townsend, Robert P. Reynolds, Ross D. MacCulloch, and Amy Lathrop 2013. Amphibians and reptiles of Guyana, South America: illustrated keys, annotated species accounts, and a biogeographic synopsis. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 125 (4): 317-578; plates: 580-620 - get paper here
  • Costa-Campos, Carlos E. 2017. Neusticurus bicarinatus (Two-faced Neusticurus) Predation. Herpetological Review 48 (1): 196-197 - get paper here
  • Dixon J R; Lamar W W 1981. A new species of microteiid lizard (genus Neusticurus) from Colombia. Journal of Herpetology 15 (3): 309-314. - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1839. Erpétologie Générale on Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles. Vol. 5. Roret/Fain et Thunot, Paris, 871 pp. - get paper here
  • Gasc J P 1990. Les Lézards de Guyane. Editions R. Chabaud, Paris.
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  • Hoogmoed M.S.; de Avila-Pires T C S 1991. Annotoated checklist of the herpetofauna of Petit Saut, Sinnamary River, French Guiana. Zoologische Mededelingen 65: 53-88 - get paper here
  • Hoogmoed, M.S., & Lescure, J. 1975. An annotated checklist of the lizards of French Guiana, mainly based on two recent collections. Zoologische Mededelingen 49(13): 141-172. - get paper here
  • Lacépède, B. G. E. 1788. Histoire Naturelle des Quadrupe des Ovipares et des Serpens. Vol.1. Imprimerie du Roi, Hôtel de Thou, Paris, xvii + 651 pp. - get paper here
  • Langstroth, R.P. 2005. Adiciones probables y confirmadas para la saurofauna boliviana. Kempffiana 1 (1): 101-128
  • Linnaeus, C. [= Linné, C. von] 1758. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii, Holmiæ. 10th Edition: 824 pp. - get paper here
  • Marques-Souza S, Prates I, Fouquet A, et al. 2018. Reconquering the water: Evolution and systematics of South and Central American aquatic lizards (Gymnophthalmidae). Zoologica Scripta 47: 255–265 - get paper here
  • Meyer, F.A.A. 1795. Synopsis Reptilium, novam ipsorum sistens generum methodum, nec non Gottingensium huius ordinis animalium enumerationem. Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, Göttingen, 32 pp [for current names see Rösler & Böhme 2021] - get paper here
  • Müller, F. 1880. Erster Nachtrag zum Katalog der herpetologischen Sammlung des Basler Museums. Verh. Naturf. Ges. Basel 7: 120-165 - get paper here
  • Oliveira, D.P.; S.M. Souza; L. Frazão; A.P. Almeida; T. Hrbek 2014. Lizards from central Jatapú River, Amazonas, Brazil. Check List 10 (1): 46-53 - get paper here
  • O’Shaughnessy,A.W.E. 1879. Description of new species of lizards in the collection of the British Museum. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 4: 295-303 - get paper here
  • Pedroso-Santos, Fillipe; Patrick Ribeiro Sanches, and Carlos Eduardo Costa-Campos, 2019. Anurans and reptiles of the Reserva Extrativista Beija-Flor Brilho de Fogo, Amapá state, eastern Amazon. Herpetology Notes 12: 799-807 - get paper here
  • RIBEIRO-JÚNIOR, MARCO A. & SILVANA AMARAL 2017. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. IV. Alopoglossidae, Gymnophthalmidae. Zootaxa 4269 (2): 151-196 - get paper here
  • Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A. & Silvana Amaral 2016. Diversity, distribution, and conservation of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) in the Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Biodiversity, 2:1, 195-421 - get paper here
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Rösler, Herbert & Wolfgang Böhme 2021. Das Leben von Friedrich Albrecht Anton Meyer (1768 – 1795) und die Herpetologie in seinen Schriften, unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der „Synopsis Reptilium“. Sekretär 21: 83-129
  • Shaw, George & Nodder, Frederick P. (Eds.) 1813. The Naturalist's Miscellany [...], Vol. XXIV. London, Nodder & Co., plates 1021-1064, 170 unnumbered pages [published in monthly issues between August 1, 1812, and July 1, 1813] - get paper here
  • Uzzell, Thomas M. 1966. Teid Lizards of the genus Neusticurus (Reptilia, Sauria). Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 132 (5): 279-327 - get paper here
  • Vitt, L.; Magnusson, W.E.; Ávila-Pires, T.C. & Lima, A.P. 2008. Guide to the Lizards of Reserva Adolpho Ducke, Central Amazonia. Attema, Manaus, 180 pp.
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