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Nilssonia hurum (GRAY, 1831)

IUCN Red List - Nilssonia hurum - Vulnerable, VU

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Higher TaxaTrionychidae (Trionychinae), Trionychoidea, Testudines (turtles)
Common NamesE: (Indian) Peacock Soft-shelled Turtle
G: Pfauenaugen-Weichschildkröte 
SynonymTrionyx hurum GRAY 1831: 47 (plate 10)
Testudo chim HAMILTON 1831 (nomen nudum)
Trionyx ocellatus — GRAY 1830
Gymnopus duvaucelii DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 487 (partim)
Trionyx sewaare GRAY 1872
Trionyx bellii GRAY 1872
Isola hurum — BAUR 1893
Trionyx buchanani THEOBALD 1874
Trionyx hurum — ALDERTON 1988
Aspideretes hurum — ERNST & BARBOUR 1989: 107
Aspideretes hurum — HALLERMANN et al. 2001
Aspideretes hurum — GEMEL & PRASCHAG 2003
Aspideretes hurum — BONIN et al 2006
Nilssonia hurum — PRASCHAG et al. 2007
Aspideretes hurum — FRITZ & HAVAŠ 2007
Aspideretes hurum — MURTHY 2010: 24
Aspideretes hurum — LENZ 2012
Nilssonia hurum — LIEBING et al. 2012
Nilssonia hurum — TTWG 2014: 416
Nilssonia hurum — TTWG 2021 
DistributionNepal, India (Assam, Madhya Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir etc.), Bangladesh (in the Brahmaputra and Ganges rivers), Pakistan (fide Khan, pers. comm.)

Type locality: "India"; restricted by Smith (1931: 171) to "Fatehgarh, Ganges," India; restricted by Webb (1980: 71), to "Barrackpore (about 23 kilometers north Calcutta), West Bengal, India"  
TypesHolotype: iconotype, Plate 66, Gray 1835 ("1830-35"), fide King & Burke 1989. 
CommentTrionyx ocellatus GRAY 1830 is a primary homonym of Trionyx ocellatus LESUEUR 1827 (= Apalone spinifera LESUEUR 1827) and is thus not available. For a more complete synonymy see GEMEL & PRASCHAG (2003).

See also note in Nilssonia formosa.

According to the molecular data of Engstrom et al. (2004) Aspideretes should be renamed Nillsonia as Nilssonia (GRAY 1872) has priority over Aspideretes (HAY 1903).

Distribution: possibly in Bhutan (Lenz 2012 and references therein).

Habitat: freshwater (rivers and tributaries, lakes) 
  • Adil, Saba; Shermeen Ijaz, Hira Aslam, Rimsha Kanwal and Sehrish Afsheen 2020. Diversity of amphibians and reptiles in Daphar Forest Sanctuary, district Mandi Bahauddin, Pakistan. Journal of Wildlife and Ecology 4(1):15-26
  • Ali, Waqas; Arshad Javid, Ali Hussain & Syed Mohsin Bukhari 2018. Diversity and conservation of freshwater turtles in Pakistan: a review. Biodiversity 19 (1-2): 62-71 - get paper here
  • Anderson,J. 1872. On Trionyx gangeticus, Cuvier, Trionyx hurum, B.H. and Dr. Gray. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4) 10: 219-222 - get paper here
  • Anderson,J. 1872. Note on Trionyx gangeticus, and Trionyx hurum, B. Hamilton. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4) 9: 382-383 - get paper here
  • Basumatary, Rajeev and D.K. Sharma 2013. The turtle fauna of Kaziranga National Park, Assam, India with notes on natural history and conservation status. Herpetology Notes 6: 59-72
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  • Bonin, F., Devaux, B. & Dupré, A. 2006. Turtles of the World. English translation by P.C.H. Pritchard. Johns Hopkins University Press, 416 pp.
  • Bour, R. 2008. Global diversity of turtles (Chelonii; Reptilia) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595:593–598 - get paper here
  • Das, Dhritiman & Dr. P. K Saikia 2007. Present status of Soft Shell Turtles (Family: Trionychidae) in Barpeta and its surrounding areas, Barpeta, Assam. Reptile Rap (8): 3-4 - get paper here
  • Das, I. et al. 2008. Tortoises and Freshwater Turtles of India. WWF/WII poster
  • Das, Indraneil & Abhijit Das 2017. A Naturalist’s Guide to the Reptiles of India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. John Beaufoy Publishing Ltd., Oxford, 176 pp.
  • de Rooij, N. de 1915. The Reptiles of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. I. Lacertilia, Chelonia, Emydosauria. Leiden (E. J. Brill), xiv + 384 pp. - get paper here
  • Duméril, A.M.C., and G. Bibron. 1835. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles, Vol. 2. Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Paris, iv + 680 p. - get paper here
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  • GOSPEL ZOTHANMAWIA HMAR, G.Z., DAS, K.C., COLNEY, Z. & LALREMSANGA, H.T. 2022. First report on limb anomalies in Nilssonia hurum (Gray, 1831) (Testudines: Trionychidae) from Mizoram, North-east India. Sauria 44 (1): 58-60 - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1831. A synopsis of the species of Class Reptilia. In: Griffith, E & E. Pidgeon: The animal kingdom arranged in conformity with its organisation by the Baron Cuvier with additional descriptions of all the species hither named, and of many before noticed [V Whittaker, Treacher and Co., London: 481 + 110 pp. [1830] - get paper here
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