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Oligodon ocellatus (MORICE, 1875)

IUCN Red List - Oligodon ocellatus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Ocellated Kukri Snake 
SynonymSimotes ocellatus MORICE 1875: 57
Simotes brevicauda STEINDACHNER 1867 (not GÜNTHER 1862)
Oligodon analepticos CAMPDEN-MAIN 1970 (nom. nov.)
Oligodon ocellatus — STUART et al. 2006
Oligodon ocellatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 501
Oligodon ocellatus — DAVID et al. 2022 
DistributionE Cambodia (Kompong Cham), S Vietnam ((Binh Tri Thien, Quang Nam-Da Nang, Dac Lac, Phu Khanh, Lam Dong, Tay Ninh, Dong Nai), 0-300 m elevation, Laos, Thailand (Ubon Ratchathani)

Type locality: "Tay-ninh, Cochinchine Française." [=Tay Ninh, Tay Ninh Province, southern Vietnam, 11° 18'N, 106° 06'E].

Terra typica (O. analepticos): “Cochinchina”  
TypesSyntypes: MHNL 1569a-b, 1571, and 1572, two males and two females, 539-663 mm (A. Morice). 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: A species of the genus Oligodon cyclurus-group, characterized by (1) long and deeply forked hemipenes, reaching 15th–17th SC, thin, smooth and not spinose throughout; (2) 19–19–15 (rarely 13) dorsal scale rows; (3) reductions between 19 and 17 rows occurring between VEN 79–107 (mean 90.3); (4) a very short tail, TaL/TL 0.097–0.141; (5) 9–11 maxillary teeth, the last two or three strongly enlarged; (6) anal plate single; (6) head scalation complete, including a presubocular; (7) 8 (rarely 7) supralabials; (9) 2 anterior temporals; and (10) a typically blotched dorsal pattern, with large blotches in most specimens, or sometimes merely a reticulated pattern with very faint blotches (DAVID et al. 2008).

CAMPDEN-MAIN provided this diagnosis for P. analepticos: “Scales smooth, in 19 rows at neck, reducing to 17 rows between 80th and 97th ventral, reducing to 15 rows between 95th and 117th ventral. Maxillary teeth 10 or 11, last three abruptly enlarged and recurbed. Venter immaculate.” 
CommentCAMPDEN-MAIN 1970 considered Simotes brevicauda STEINDACHNER as a secondary homonym of Oligodon brevicauda GÜNTHER 1862. Thus a new name, Oligodon analepticos was proposed by CAMPDEN-MAIN 1970.

Habitat: terrestrial, despite being categorized as “fully arboreal” (by Harrington et al. 2018), probably erroneously following Das 2010 (pers. comm., James Holden via Henrik Bringsøe, 30 Nov 2021). 
  • Bringsøe H, Holden J 2021. Yet another kukri snake piercing an anuran abdomen: Oligodon ocellatus (Morice, 1875) eats Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider, 1799) in Vietnam. Herpetozoa 34: 57-59 - get paper here
  • Campden-Main, S.M. 1970. The Identity of Oligodon cyclurus (CANTOR, 1839) and Revalidation of Oligodon brevicauda (STEINDACHNER, 1867) (Serpentes: Colubridae). Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 82 (58): 763-765 - get paper here
  • David, P.; Vogel, G. & Pauwels, O.S.G. 2008. A new species of the genus Oligodon Fitzinger, 1826 (Squamata: Colubridae) from southern Vietnam and Cambodia. Zootaxa 1939: 19–37 - get paper here
  • David, Patrick; Sjon Hauser & Gernot Vogel 2022. A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS Oligodon FITZINGER, 1826 (REPTILIA: COLUBRIDAE) FROM SOUTHERN LAOS TAPROBANICA 11 (1): 12-24 - get paper here
  • Geissler, Peter, Truong Quang Nguyen, Nikolay A. Poyarkov & Wolfgang Böhme 2011. New records of snakes from Cat Tien National Park, Dong Nai and Lam Dong provinces, southern Vietnam. Bonn zoological Bulletin 60 (1): 9-16 - get paper here
  • Gemel, R.; G. Gassner & S. Schweiger 2019. Katalog der Typen der Herpetologischen Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien – 2018. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B 121: 33–248
  • Green, Marc D.; Nikolai L. Orlov and Robert W. Murphy 2010. Toward a Phylogeny of the Kukri Snakes, Genus Oligodon. Asian Herpetological Research 1 (1): 1-21 - get paper here
  • Harrington, Sean M; Jordyn M de Haan, Lindsey Shapiro, Sara Ruane 2018. Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (1): 61–71 - get paper here
  • Morice, A. 1875. Coup d’oeil sur la faune de la Cochinchine française. H. Georg, Lyon, 101 pp.
  • NEANG, THY; L. LEE GRISMER & JENNIFER C. DALTRY 2012. A new species of kukri snake (Colubridae: Oligodon Fitzinger, 1826) from the Phnom Samkos Wildlife Sanctuary, Cardamom Mountains, southwest Cambodia. Zootaxa 3388: 41–55 - get paper here
  • NGUYEN, S. N., VAN LE, M. A. N. H., THI-DIEU-HIEN, V. O., & MURPHY, R. W. 2022. A new species of the genus Oligodon Fitzinger, 1826 (Squamata: Colubridae) from Langbian Plateau, Vietnam. Zootaxa 5196 (4): 555-566 - get paper here
  • Nguyen, S.V., Ho, C.T. and Nguyen, T.Q. 2009. Herpetofauna of Vietnam. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 768 pp.
  • NGUYEN, SANG NGOC; VU DANG HOANG NGUYEN, SON HONG LE, ROBERT W. MURPHY 2016. A new species of kukri snake (Squamata: Colubridae: Oligodon Fitzinger, 1826) from Con Dao Islands, southern Vietnam. Zootaxa 4139 (2): 261–273 - get paper here
  • PAUWELS, O. S., THONGYAI, K., CHANTONG, P., & SUMONTHA, M. 2021. Two new Kukri Snake species (Colubridae: Oligodon) from the Nakhon Si Thammarat Mountain Range, and addition of O. ocellatus to the fauna of Thailand. Zootaxa 4908 (4): 537-557 - get paper here
  • Saint-Girons, H. 1972. Les Serpents du Cambodge. Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Série A, Zoologie 74: 1-170
  • Steindachner, F. 1867. In: Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte Novara um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858,1859 unter den Befehlen des Commodore B. von Wüllerstorf-Urbair (Zoologie), Vol. 1, part 3 (Reptilien p.1-98). K. Gerold's Sohn/Kaiserlich-Königl. Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, Wien [1869 on title page] - get paper here
  • Stuart, B.; Sok, K. & Neang, T. 2006. A collection of amphibians and reptiles from hilly Eastern Cambodia. Raffles Bull. Zool. 54 (1): 129-155 - get paper here
  • VASSILIEVA, ANNA B.; PETER GEISSLER, EDUARD A. GALOYAN, NIKOLAY Jr A. POYARKOV, ROBERT WAYNE VAN DEVENDER, WOLFGANG BÖHME 2013. A new species of Kukri Snake (Oligodon Fitzinger, 1826; Squamata: Colubridae) from the Cat Tien National Park, southern Vietnam. Zootaxa 3702 (3): 233–246 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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