Oligodon tolaki AMARASINGHE,, SUJAN M. HENKANATHTHEGEDARA, PATRICK D. CAMPBELL, AWAL RIYANTO, JAKOB HALLERMANN, AND GERNOT VOGEL, 2021
Can you confirm these amateur observations of Oligodon tolaki?
|Higher Taxa||Colubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)|
|Synonym||Oligodon tolaki AMARASINGHE, HENKANATHTHEGEDARA, CAMPBELL, RIYANTO, HALLERMANN & VOGEL 2021|
Oligodon waandersi –– DE LANG & VOGEL 2005 [partim]
|Distribution||Indonesia (Southeast Sulawesi)|
Type locality: Gunung (Mt.) Mekongga (3˚34'49.60''S, 121˚09'34.50'' E), alt. 1097 m a.s.l.), Tinukari, Wawo, North Kolaka Regency, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia
|Types||Holotype: MZB 4570, adult male, collected by W. Trilaksana, on 6 July 2010|
Paratypes: MZB 2669, MZB 2812, MZB 2831, MZB 2991, MZB 2832
|Diagnosis||Diagnosis: Oligodon tolaki sp. nov. is distinguished from other congeners by having the following combination of characters: maximum SVL 340 mm, a single postocular, a single loreal, a single cloacal plate, completely divided nasal, ventrals 150–169, subcaudals 18–26, temporals 1þ2, six SUPs with third and fourth in contact with eye, DSRs 15-15-15, hemipenes not forked and covered with spines, maxillary teeth 6–7, shorter tail (TL 6.8–11.2% of total length), brownish dorsum with few dark-edged spots on the vertebral line anteriorly, reddish brown vertebral line on the posterior body and tail, mostly a blackish brown blotch below eye, and whitish collar band interrupted middorsally. (Amarasinghe et al. 2021).|
Comparisons: Oligodon tolaki sp. nov. is most similar to O. waandersi and O. propinquus (characters in parentheses). The new species differs from O. waandersi by having a single postocular (two); a single loreal (absent); a single cloacal plate (divided); completely divided nasal (undivided, rarely partially divided); a narrow, deep, and pointed rostral (broader, shallower, and rounded); and rounded snout in lateral aspect (pointed). The new species differs from O. propinquus by having a single postocular (two), a single cloacal plate (divided, rarely entire), ventrals 150–169 (134– 147), completely divided nasal (undivided, rarely partially divided), rounded snout in lateral aspect (pointed), and shorter tail (TL 6.8–11.2% of total length; longer, 12.0–14.2%).
Furthermore, the new species is compared with other closely related Oligodon species from Southeast Asia based on data in de Rooij (1917), Taylor (1922), Smith (1943), Leviton (1963), Manthey and Grossmann (1997), Pauwels et al. (2002), Das (2010), and Tillack and Gu¨ nther (2010) as well as on specimens deposited in collections (see Appendix). The number of DSRs around the neck (one head length behind the head) and at midbody is a major diagnostic character in the genus Oligodon (see David et al. 2008). This number is usually constant within a given species. This character is only variable in some exceptional species complexes such as Oligodon purpurascens (Schlegel 1837), which has 19 or 21 scale rows at midbody. There are 80 species recognized in the genus Oligodon, of which only 31 species have 15 DSRs, either constantly along the length of body or at least at midbody (see Table 5). All other species of the genus have 13, 17, 19, 21, or rarely 23 rows at midbody or throughout the body.
Among the 31 species that have 15 DSRs at midbody, 25 species display the condition consistently (15-15 15), including the new species: O. brevicauda G¨unther 1862; O. calamarius (Linnaeus 1758); O. dorsalis (Gray 1834); O. erythrorachis Wall 1910; O. everetti Boulenger 1893; O. hamptoni Boulenger 1918; O. inornatus (Boulenger 1914); O. jintakunei Pauwels, Wallach, David, and Chanhome 2002; O. kampucheaensis Neang, Grismer, and Daltry 2012; O. lacroixi Angel and Bourret 1933; O. lungshenensis Zheng and Huang in Huang et al. 1978; O. melaneus Wall 1909; O. modestus G¨unther 1864; O. nikhili Whitaker and Dattatri 1982; O. notospilus G¨unther 1873; O. ornatus van Denburgh 1909; O. petronellae Roux in de Rooij 1917; O. praefrontalis Werner 1913; O. propinquus Jan 1862; O. sublineatus Dum´ eril, Bibron, and Dum´ eril 1854; O. taeniolatus (Jerdon 1853); O. torquatus (Boulenger 1888); O. vertebralis (Gu¨ nther 1865); O. waandersi (Bleeker 1860); O. wagneri David and Vogel 2012; and O. tolaki sp. nov. The structure and length of the hemipenes are major diagnostic characters in the genus Oligodon (Smith 1943). Oligodon tolaki sp. nov. differs from O. dorsalis, O. kampucheaensis, O. sublineatus, and O. taeniolatus by its unforked hemipenes (forked). The new species has six or seven maxillary teeth; thus, a lower number than in both O. inornatus (11–12) and O. torquatus (15–16). Oligodon tolaki sp. nov. has a complete head scalation complement and thus differs from O. brevicauda, O. hamptoni, O. jintakunei, and O. praefrontalis that lack internasals. Oligodon tolaki sp. nov. has 150–169 ventrals, representing a higher number than in O. nikhili (144), O. notospilus (136–140), and O. vertebralis (136–143), and fewer than in O. praefrontalis (193). Also, the new species has 18–26 subcaudals; thus, fewer than in O. dorsalis (27–51), O. erythrorachis (46), O. everetti (46–72), O. hamptoni (30–32), O. inornatus (31–42), O. jintakunei (46), O. kampucheaensis (39), O. lacroixi (29), O. lungshenensis (31–38), O. melaneus (39–40), O. modestus (27–44), O. nikhili (33), O. notospilus (35–42), O. ornatus (27–44), O. petronellae (30–42), O. praefrontalis (37), O. taeniolatus (29–59), O. vertebralis (35–43), and O. wagneri (41). Oligodon tolaki sp. nov. further differs by having a TL 6.8–11.2% of total length, which is shorter than in O. bitorquatus (17.2–19.2%), O. everetti (25.8–28.8%), O. modestus (15.0–21.1%), O. notospilus (19.7–21.7%), O. petronellae (15.0–17.8%), and O. wagneri (16.2%). Finally, the new species differs from O. calamarius by having uniform dorsum, sometimes with reddish brown longitudinal stripes and darker edged pale vertebral spots (a yellow vertebral stripe with paler edged narrow transverse stripes anteriorly). (Amarasinghe et al. 2021).
Color in life: Dorsum dark olive brown, lateral surface paler; faded reddish brown vertebral line on the tail; three blackish brown blotches on parietals and one on frontal posteriorly; faded whitish, uninterrupted collar mark on nape with dark-edged posteriorly; a blackish brown blotch below eye; another black blotch above eye on the junction of supraocular, frontal, and prefrontal; with several pale, dark edged blotched along the vertebral line up to the tail; four to seven dorsal scale gap in between each pale spot. (Amarasinghe et al. 2021).
|Comment||Similar species: O. waandersi, O. propinquus|
|Etymology||The specific epithet refers to the major ethnic group in Sulawesi, ‘‘Tolaki,’’ and is formed here as an invariable noun in apposition. The Tolaki tribe is mostly distributed in the Southeast Sulawesi where the new species is also found.|
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