You are here » home advanced search search results Ophryacus smaragdinus


Can you confirm these amateur observations of Ophryacus smaragdinus?

Add your own observation of
Ophryacus smaragdinus »

Find more photos by Google images search: Google images

Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Emerald Horned Pitviper 
SynonymOphryacus smaragdinus GRÜNWALD, JONES, FRANZ-CHÁVEZ & AHUMADA-CARILLO 2015
Ophryacus undulatus — FLORES-VILLELA et al. 1992: 249.
Ophryacus undulatus — CAMARILLO 1995: 196.
Ophryacus undulatus — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004: 454 (in part).
Ophryacus undulatus — MENDOZA-PAZ et al. 2006: 109 (in part).
Ophryacus undulatus — RAMÍREZ-BAUTISTA et al. 2010: 77
Ophryacus undulatus — SOLANO-ZAVALETA et al. 2010: 381
Ophryacus undulatus — RAMÍREZ-BAUTISTA et al. 2014: 177 
DistributionMexico (Veracruz, Hidalgo, Puebla, Oaxaca), elevation 1,400 - 2,400 m

Type locality: Los Ocotes (20.601542, -98.469708; datum WGS 84; elev. 2,150 m asl), Zilacatipan, Municipio de Huayacocotola, Veracruz, Sierra Madre Oriental, Mexico  
TypesHolotype: MZFC 29290, adult female, collected by Jason M. Jones and Iván T. Ahumada-Carrillo on 2 November 2013. Paratypes: Seven specimens. MEXICO: HIDALGO: El Potrero, Municipio de Tenango de Doria (20.314922, -98.229653; datum WGS 84; elev. 2,200 m), an adult male collected 25 August 1990 by students of the Escuela Nacional Estatal y Profesional de Iztacala, UNAM (MZFC 21140); “Doria,” Municipio de Tengano de Doria (20.314922, -98.229653; datum WGS 84; elev. 2,200 m), an adult male collected on 14 July 1990 by Efraín Hernández-García (MZFC 04825). OAXACA: San Martín Caballero, Municipio de San José Tenango (18.108175, -96.633981; datum WGS 84; elev. 1,360 m), an adult male collected 25 May 1994 by Mario Mancilla-Moreno (MZFC 13556); San Martín Caballero, Municipio de San José Tenango (18.108175, -96.633981; datum WGS 84; elev. 1,360 m), a juvenile female collected 28 May 1994, collector unknown (MZFC 13557). PUEBLA: Xucayucan, Municipio de Tlatlauquitepec (19.895744, -97.471700; datum WGS 84; elev. 1,630 m), a juvenile female collected 27 May 2005 by Israel Solano-Zavaleta (MZFC 17663). VERACRUZ: Cerro La Campana, Ticuautipan, Municipio de Xico (19.439500, -97.078078; datum WGS 84; elev. 2,045 m), a subadult female collected on 26 October 2003 by Itzel Durán Fuentes (MZFC 20582); and Zilacatipan, Municipio de Huayacocotla (20.655761, -98.424894; datum WGS 84; elev. 1,790 m), a subadult female, collected on 2 November 2013 by Jason M. Jones and Iván T. Ahumada-Carrillo (MZFC 29289). 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Ophryacus smaragdinus can be distinguished from all other pitvipers in North America by the combination of the following characters: absence of a rattle; divided subcaudal scales; presence of a supraocular horn that is not in immediate contact with the eye; fewer than 30 interrictal scales; and usually fewer than 10 supralabials on each side of the head (Fig. 2). A distinctive white, cream, or pale yellow triangular marking is present on the lateral surfaces of the head, starting just below the suboculars and extending diagonally onto the 5th and 6th supralabials; this pale marking often extends onto the 7th and 8th (if present) supralabials. Secondary pale markings also are present on the 1st and 3rd supralabials, whereas the color of the 2nd and 4th supralabials is the same as the ground color of the head. This pale-colored triangular marking and the associated secondary pale markings are diagnostic for this species, and when viewing photographic material are helpful in distinguishing it from its congeners (Fig. 9A, B, C in Grünwald et al. 2015). 
EtymologyThe specific epithet is derived from the Latin word smaragdinus, an adjective meaning “emerald-green,” in reference to the emerald green ground coloration exhibited by most individuals of this species. 
  • Camarillo,R.J.L. 1995. Distribution records for some amphibians and reptiles from Mexico. Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 31 (4): 195-197 - get paper here
  • Campbell, Jonathan A. and William W. Lamar 2004. The Venomous Reptiles of the Western Hemisphere, 2 vols. Comstock (Cornell University Press), Ithaca, NY, 962 pp. [review in Science 305: 182]
  • Contreras-Calvario, Angel Ivan; Jorge Luis Castillo Juárez, Laura Pamela Taval Velazquez, Mauricio Sánchez Eugenio 2020. Nuevos registros en la distribución geográfica de Ophryacus smaragdinus (Grünwald, Jones, Franz-Chávez & Ahumada-Carrillo, 2015) (Viperidae) en la región de las Altas Montañas, Veracruz, México. Rev. Latinoamer. Herp. 3 (1): 121-123 - get paper here
  • Flores-Villela, O., F. Mendoza, E. Hernández, M. Mancilla, E. Godínez, and I. Goyenechea-Mayer. 1992. Ophryacus undulatus in the Mexican state of Hidalgo. Texas Journal of Science 44: 249–250 - get paper here
  • Grünwald, Christoph I.; Jason M. Jones, Hector Franz-Chávez, and Iván T. Ahumada-Carrillo 2015. A new species of Ophryacus (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae) from eastern Mexico, with commentson the taxonomy of related pitvipers. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (4): 388 - get paper here
  • León, Octavio Iván Martínez-Vaca; Ana Gloria Gutiérrez-García, Blandina Bernal-Morales, Juan Francisco Rodríguez-Landa, Laura Teresa Hernández-Salazar, Jorge Eufrates Morales-Mávil 2020. Horned Pitviper (Serpentes: Viperidae: Ophryacus smaragdinus) Can Detect Substrate Vibrations of Potential Prey of Differing Size. Russian Journal of Herpetology 27 (4): 201-208 - get paper here
  • Mendoza-Paz, R. F., F. Mendoza-Quijano, R. W. Bryson, and E. N. Smith. 2006. Geographical Distribution. Ophryacus undulatus (Mexican Horned Pitviper). Herpetological Review 37: 109 - get paper here
  • OLIVEIRA-DALLAND, LUIS G.; LAURA R.V. ALENCAR, LEANDRO R. TAMBOSI, PAOLA A. CARRASCO, RHETT M. RAUTSAW, JESUS SIGALA-RODRIGUEZ, GUSTAVO SCROCCHI & MARCIO MARTINS. 2022. Conservation gaps for Neotropical vipers: Mismatches between protected areas, species richness and evolutionary distinctiveness. Biological Conservation 275(109750). - get paper here
  • Ramírez-Bautista, A., U. Hernández-Salinas, F. Mendoza-Quijano, R. Cruz-Elizalde, B. P. Stephenson, V. D. Vite-Silvaand A. Leyte-Manriquez. 2010. Lista Anotada de los Anfibios y Reptiles del Estado de Hidalgo, México. Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Pachuca, Hidalgo, and Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad, México D.F., Mexico
  • Ramírez-Bautista, Aurelio, Uriel Hernández-Salinas, Raciel Cruz-Elisade, Christian Berriozabal-Islas, Daniel Lara-Tufiño, Irene Goyenechea Mayer-Goenechea, and Jesús M. Castillo-Cerón 2015. Los Anfibios y Reptiles de Hidalgo, México: Diversidad, Biogeografía y Conservación. Eagle Mountain Publishing, xiii + 387 pp.
  • Solano-Zavaleta, Israel, Andrés Alberto Mendoza-Hernández and Luis Canseco-Márquez. 2010. Geographic distribution: Ophryacus undulatus. Herpetological Review 41 (3): 381 - get paper here
  • Torres-Hernández, LA, Ramírez-Bautista A, Cruz-Elizalde R, Hernández-Salinas U, Berriozabal-Islas C, DeSantis DL, Johnson JD, Rocha A, García-Padilla E, Mata-Silva V, Fucsko LA, and Wilson LD. 2021. The herpetofauna of Veracruz, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 15(2) [General Section]: 72–155 - get paper here
  • Woolrich-Piña, G. A., E. García-Padilla, D. L. DeSantis, J. D. Johnson, V. Mata-Silva, and L. D. Wilson 2017. The herpetofauna of Puebla, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 4(4): 791–884 - get paper here
External links  
Is it interesting? Share with others:

As link to this species use URL address:

without field 'search_param'. Field 'search_param' is used for browsing search result.

Please submit feedback about this entry to the curator