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Orlitia borneensis GRAY, 1873

IUCN Red List - Orlitia borneensis - Endangered, EN

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Higher TaxaGeoemydidae (Geoemydinae), Testudinoidea, Testudines (turtles)
Common NamesE: Malayan Giant Turtle, Century Turtle
G: Borneo Flussschildkröte 
SynonymOrlitia borneensis GRAY 1873: 157
Clemmys (Heteroclemmys) gibbera PETERS 1874
Bellia borneensis — BOULENGER 1889
Bellia borneensis — WERNER 1900: 481
Hardella baileyi BARTLETT 1895
Adelochelys crassa BAUR 1896
Brookeia baileyi BARTLETT 1896 (fide SIEBENROCK 1904)
Liemys inornata BOULENGER 1897: 469
Brookeia baileyi — SHELFORD 1901: 47
Orlitia borneensis — DE ROOIJ 1915: 292
Orlitia borneensis — KING & BURKE 1989
Orlitia borneensis — ERNST & BARBOUR 1989: 177
Orlitia borneensis — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 452
Orlitia borneensis — COX et al. 1998: 130
Ortilia borneensis — ARIFIN et al. 2011 (in error)
Orlitia borneensis — TTWG 2014
Orlitia borneensis — TTWG 2021 
DistributionMalaysia (S Malay peninsula), Indonesia (Sumatra, Borneo)

Type locality: “Borneo”
Type locality: Pulo Matjan [Kalimantan] (Borneo) [Clemmys gibbera PETERS]  
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1947.3.4.9.
Holotype: ZMB 5022 [Clemmys (Heteroclemmys) gibbera PETERS 1874] 
CommentType species: Orlitia borneensis GRAY 1873: 157 is the type species of the genus Orlitia GRAY 1873: 156.

Habitat: freshwater (Rivers, lakes)

Karyotype: diploid chromosome total: 50 (Bickham 1981, Carr & Bickham 1986). 
EtymologyNamed after its distribution on Borneo (Indonesia). 
  • ARIFIN, UMILAELA; DJOKO T. ISKANDAR and ROSITA ELIANUR 2011. Herpetofauna Diversity Of Karimata Island-Indonesia. Proceedings of the Conference “Biology of the Amphibians in the Sunda Region, South-east Asia”. Organized by Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 28–30 September 2009. pp:1–7. Edited by Indraneil Das et al.. Institute of Biodiversity and Environmental Conse - get paper here
  • Auliya, M. 2006. Taxonomy, Life History, and conservation of giant reptiles in west Kalimantan. Natur und Tier Verlag, Münster, 432 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1897. Description of a new genus and species of Tortoises from Borneo. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 19: 468-469 - get paper here
  • Bour, R. 2008. Global diversity of turtles (Chelonii; Reptilia) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595:593–598 - get paper here
  • Chan-ard,T.; Grossmann,W.; Gumprecht,A. & Schulz,K. D. 1999. Amphibians and reptiles of peninsular Malaysia and Thailand - an illustrated checklist [bilingual English and German]. Bushmaster Publications, Würselen, Gemany, 240 pp. [book review in Russ. J Herp. 7: 87] - get paper here
  • Cox, Merel J.; Van Dijk, Peter Paul; Jarujin Nabhitabhata & Thirakhupt,Kumthorn 1998. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. Ralph Curtis Publishing, 144 pp.
  • Ernst,C.H. and Barbour,R.W. 1989. Turtles of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. - London
  • Gray,J.E. 1873. On a new freshwater tortoise from Borneo (Orlitia borneensis). Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4) 11: 156-157 - get paper here
  • Husson, S.J.; S.H. Limin, Adul, N.S. Boyd, J.J. Brousseau, S. Collier, S.M. Cheyne, L.J. D’Arcy, R.A. Dow, N.W. Dowds, M.L. Dragiewicz, D.A. Ehlers Smith, Iwan, Hendri, P.R. Houlihan, K.A. Jeffers, B.J.M. Jarrett, I.P. Kulu, H.C. Morrogh-Bernard, S.E 2018. Biodiversity of the Sebangau tropical peat swamp forest, Indonesian Borneo. Mires and Peat 22 (05): 1–50 - get paper here
  • Jamniczky, H. A. and A. P. Russell 2004. A geometric morphometric assessment of the 'batagurine process' of testudinoid turtles. Amphibia-Reptilia 25 (4): 369-379 - get paper here
  • Lee, J. C.I.; Tsai, L.C.; Liao, S.P.; Linacre, A. & Hsieh, H.M. 2009. Species identification using the cytochrome b gene of commercial turtle shells. Forensic Science International: Genetics 3: 67–73 - get paper here
  • Ludwig, Maxim; Auer, Markus; Fritz, Uwe 2007. Phalangeal formulae of geoemydid terrapins (Batagur, Callagur, Hardella, Heosemys, Kachuga, Orlitia, Pangshura, Rhinoclemmys) reflect distinct modes of life. Amphibia-Reptilia 28 (4): 574-576 - get paper here
  • Manthey, U. & Grossmann, W. 1997. Amphibien & Reptilien Südostasiens. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 512 pp. - get paper here
  • McCord, W.P. & Joseph-Ouni, M. 2003. Chelonian Illustrations #10. Monotypic genera of the family Geoemydidae. Reptilia (GB) (30): 34-38 - get paper here
  • Mo, Matthew 2020. Only in captivity? An interaction between two threatened chelonians, an Asian Giant Tortoise (Manouria emys) and a Malaysian Giant Turtle (Orlitia borneensis). IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians 27 (1): 89–90 - get paper here
  • Mohd Salleh, M.H.; Esa, Y.; Salleh, S.M.; Mohd Sah, S.A. 2022. Turtles in Malaysia: A Review of Conservation Status and a Call for Research. Animals 12, 2184 - get paper here
  • Peters, Wilhem Carl Hartwig 1874. Über neue Amphibien (Gymnopis, Siphonops, Polypedates, Rhacophorus, Hyla, Cyclodus, Euprepes, Clemmys). Monatsber. königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin. 1874 (October): 616-624 - get paper here
  • Schilde, M. 2004. Asiatische Sumpfschildkröten - Die Familie Geoemydidae in Südostasien, China und Japan. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 192 pp. - get paper here
  • Setiyabudi, Erick; Akio Takahashi, and Yosuke Kaifu 2016. First Certain Fossil Record of Orlitia borneensis (Testudines: Geoemydidae) from the Pleistocene of Central Java, Indonesia. Current Herpetology Aug 2016, Vol. 35, No. 2: 75-82. - get paper here
  • Shelford, R. 1901. A list of the reptiles of Borneo. Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (35-36): 43- - get paper here
  • Siebenrock, F. 1902. Brookeia Baileyi E. Bartlett und Adelochelys crassa Baur. Zool. Anz. 25: 671-673 - get paper here
  • Siebenrock, F. 1904. Zur Systematik der Schilkröten-Gattung Orlitia Gray. Zool. Anz. 27: 580-582 - get paper here
  • TEYNIÉ, ALEXANDRE; PATRICK DAVID, & ANNEMARIE OHLER 2010. Note on a collection of Amphibians and Reptiles from Western Sumatra (Indonesia), with the description of a new species of the genus Bufo. Zootaxa 2416: 1–43 - get paper here
  • TTWG [Peter Paul van Dijk, John B. Iverson, Anders G.J. Rhodin, H. Bradley Shaffer, and Roger Bour] 2014. Turtles of the World, 7th Edition: Annotated Checklist of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution with Maps, and Conservation Status. 000.v7. Chelonian Research Monographs (ISSN 1088-7105) No. 5, doi:10.3854/crm.5.000.checklist.v7.2014 - get paper here
  • TTWG; Rhodin, A.G.J., Iverson, J.B., Bour, R., Fritz, U., Georges, A., Shaffer, H.B., and van Dijk, P.P. 2021. Turtles of the World: Annotated Checklist and Atlas of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution, and Conservation Status (9th Ed.). In: Rhodin, A.G.J., Iverson, J.B., van Dijk, P.P., Stanford, C.B., Goode, E.V., Buhlmann, K.A., and Mittermeier, R.A. (Eds.). Chelonian Research Monographs 8:1–472. doi:10.3854/crm.8.checklist.atlas.v9.2021. - get paper here
  • Werner, F. 1900. Reptilien und Batrachier aus Sumatra, gesammelt Herrn. Gustav Schneider jr., im Jahre 1897-1898. Zool. Jahrb. (syst) 13: 479-508 - get paper here
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