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Oxyrhopus emberti GONZALES, REICHLE & ENTIAUSPE-NETO, 2020

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymOxyrhopus emberti GONZALES, REICHLE & ENTIAUSPE-NETO 2020 
DistributionBolivia (Santa Cruz)

Type locality: Santa Rosa de Lima (17,87° W,64,25° S), Provincia Florida, Departamento Santa Cruz, Bolivia  
Reproductionoviparous. An adult female (MNKR 2058) collected in December contained nine eggs in its oviduct, while another (CBGR 0061) collected in November contained six eggs (Gonzales et al. 2020). 
TypesHolotype: MNK R2551* (Figs. 1, 2, and 6). Adult female, collected 15/01/98, by Francisco Sagot.
Paratypes (25 specimens): CBGR, MNK; additional specimens: ZFMK 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Oxyrhopus emberti sp. nov can be distinguished from all its congeners based on: (1) smooth dorsal scales with two apical pits, 19/19/17 rows; (2) postoculars two; (3) loreal rectangular, wider than higher; (4) temporal formula 2+3, 1+3 (or rarely 1+2); (5) supralabials usually eight, with 4th and 5th (rarely 4th, 5th, and 6th) in contact with orbit; (6) infralabials nine or ten (rarely eight), with 4–5 in contact with first pair of genials; (7) ventrals 197–209 in females, 189–195 in males; (8) subcaudals 66–74 in females, 75–87 in males; (9) in life, dorsum uniform black in adults, juveniles present alternating large black bands, with cream bands on tail and anterior third of body, including nuchal region, bands changing to orange on posterior body (body black bands 4–17 scales wide; body white bands 1–4 scales wide; tail black bands 3–8 scales wide; tail white bands 1–3 scales wide); (10) in life, venter uniform black with yellow gular region in adults, dorsal bands continue onto venter in juveniles; (11) juveniles with black body bands 17–29 and white body bands 16–21, black tail bands 6–11 and white tail bands 7–10; (12) maximum TTL in females 1277 mm and males 916 mm; (13) maxillary teeth 15:13 smooth and two grooved teeth; (14) supraocular and prefrontal in contact, separating preocular from frontal; (15) hemipenis strongly bilobed, bicalyculate, bicapitate, with lateral spines developed and enlarged, in five rows (Gonzales et al. 2020).

Coloration: The 10 examined juvenile specimens (MNKR 2625, 3415, 3522, 3544, 3616, 4336, 4369, 4714, 4825, ZFMK 80615) of undetermined sex, and two juvenile females (MNKR 3506, 3727), exhibited banded pattern, consisting of black body bands 17–29 and white body bands 16–21, black tail bands 6–11 and white tail bands 7–10); in one specimen, MNKR 3544, black color does not extend onto venter anteriorly; white bands 1-4 scales wide dorsally, wider on venter; separated by black bands of 4–17 scales; head black dorsally, with a broad and complete red or yellow nuchal collar in juveniles; one juvenile female (MNKR 3506, 537 mm total body length) is almost fully black, with a yellow gular region, and white body bands visible on the last body third and tail, dorsally and ventrally; the other juvenile female (MNKR 3727, 565 mm TTL) is completely black, with a yellow gular region.
Some small adult individuals (e.g. CBGR 0061, 1032 mm total body length) conserve red incomplete bands, although indistinct or vestigial, turning white on alcohol; an adult male (MNKR 1506, 450 mm) has a uniform black dorsum, and a dark yellow venter; all other adult individuals present uniform black dorsum and venter, with a pale yellow gular region; supralabials are black, and infralabials are pale yellow, as in the gular area; iris coloration red. In preservative, yellow turns white.

Comparisons: Characteristics from other species are presented in parentheses in this section. Oxyrhopus emberti sp. n. can be readily distinguished from O. melanogenys, O. guibei, O. trigeminus, Oxyrhopus melanogenys orientalis Cunha and Nascimento, 1983, and Oxyrhopus vanidicus Lynch, 2009 by preocular scale separated from frontal by a supraocular and prefrontal contact (preocular in contact with frontal); in adults of O. emberti uniform black dorsum dorsum and venter, juveniles with narrow orange or white body bands (diads or triads of black body bands) (Cunha & Nascimento 1983, Zaher & Caramaschi 1992, Freitas 2003, Lynch 2009).
Oxyrhopus emberti differs from O. petolarius by preocular separated from frontal by supraocular and prefrontal contact (preocular in contact with frontal); subcaudals in males 75–87, in females 66–74 (100–126 in males, 86– 110 in females of O. petolarius); uniform black adult dorsum and venter (alternating black and red body bands with white venter; although it might have a uniform black dorsum in some individuals, it retains a white venter) (Cunha & Nascimento 1983, Freitas 2003, Lynch 2009); only papillate calyces present on asulcate and sulcate medial surfaces (enlarged spines widely present on asulcate and sulcate medial surfaces) (Zaher 1999); maxillary teeth 13+2 (8+2) (MacCulloch et al. 2009).
Oxyrhopus emberti may be distinguished from O. occipitalis by uniform black adult coloration (red with faint black bands, yellow snout and gular region, top of head brown); maxillary teeth 13+2 (7–8+2) (Hoge et al. 1977, Cunha & Nascimento 1989, MacCulloch et al. 2009).
Oxyrhopus emberti may be distinguished from O. formosus by maximum range of ventrals reaching up to 209 (191); dorsal scale rows 19/19/17 (19/19/19); snout black (yellow, orange, or red), adults uniform black (black and reticulated red or white crossbands, venter white); juvenile body bands reaching up to 29 in body, 11 in tail (19 and 8) (Hoge et al. 1977, Cunha & Nascimento 1989, Silva Jr 1993, Freitas 2003).
Oxyrhopus emberti may be distinguished from O. rhombifer by preocular separated from frontal by supraocular and prefrontal contact (preocular in contact with frontal); white nuchal collar in juveniles (red in juveniles and adults); adults uniform black (black crossbands or triangles over incomplete red and white bands); hemipenis strongly bilobed with conspicuous pair of nude pockets in the lobular crotch (moderately bilobed, with moderately developed nude pockets) (Cei 1993, Zaher 1999, Freitas 2003).
Oxyrhopus emberti may be distinguished from O. clathratus by presenting a nude area in lateral region of the tip of hemipenial lobes, five rows of enlarged spines, and organ Y-shaped (ornamented with papillate calyces, four rows of enlarged spines, either T or Y-shaped); adults uniform black (alternating red, white, and black crossbands, adults sometimes with black dorsum, with a white venter); (Zaher 1999, Bernardo et al. 2012).
Oxyrhopus emberti may be distinguished from O. doliatus in having dorsal scale rows 19/19/17 (19/19/19); adult uniformly black (red with broad black rings anteriorly, diminishing in width posteriorly) (Zaher & Caramaschi 2000).
Oxyrhopus emberti may be distinguished from O. fitzingeri by dorsal scale rows 19/19/17 (vs. 19/19/19); adults uniform black, crossbands in juveniles (light brown with irregular and scattered dark brown blotches, head pale orange) (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970).
Oxyrhopus emberti may be distinguished from O. leucomelas by dorsal scale rows 19/19/17 (17/17/15); higher range of infralabials 8–10 (7–8); uniform black dorsum in adults and crossbands in juveniles (alternating black and white crossbands, with a vertebral orange stripe) (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970).
Oxyrhopus emberti may be distinguished from O. marcapatae by supralabials 8–9 (7); dorsal scale rows 19/19/17 (15/15/15); adults uniform black (alternating black and cream bands) (Ruthven in Barbour 1913, Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970, Gaiarsa et al. 2013).
Oxyrhopus emberti may be distinguished from O. erdisii by dorsal scales in 19/19/17 rows, with two apical pits (19/19/15 rows without apical pits); broad white nuchal collar in juveniles, absent in adults (incomplete narrow cream nuchal collar, in juveniles and adults); adults uniform black, juveniles with black and white or orange crossbands (juveniles and adults with alternating black, white or red crossbands); larger first black band in juveniles, 9–17 scales wide (5–8 scales wide) (Zaher & Caramaschi 2000) (Figs. 3 and 6 in Gonzales et al. 2020). 
Comment 
EtymologyNamed after German herpetologist Dirk Embert, who has provided extensive contributions to the Bolivian Herpetology.
 
References
  • Gonzales, L., Reichle, S., & Entiauspe-Neto, OM 2020. A new species of Oxyrhopus Wagler, 1830 (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) from the Bolivian Andes. An Acad Bras Cienc 92 (Suppl. 2): e20191428
 
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