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Pangshura smithii (GRAY, 1863)

IUCN Red List - Pangshura smithii - Least Concern, LR

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Higher TaxaGeoemydidae (Geoemydinae), Testudinoidea, Testudines (turtles)
SubspeciesPangshura smithii smithii (GRAY 1863)
Pangshura smithii pallidipes (MOLL 1987) 
Common NamesE: Brown roofed Turtle
G: Braune Dachschildkröte
E: pallidipes: Pale-footed turtle 
SynonymBatagur smithii GRAY 1863: 253
Pangshura smithii — MURRAY 1886: 8
Kachuga smithii — BOULENGER 1889
Kachuga smithii — KING & BURKE 1989
Kachuga smithi — ERNST & BARBOUR 1989: 163
Kachuga smithii — OBST 2003: 17
Panshura smithii — SPINKS et al. 2004
Batagur smithii — LE et al. 2007
Kachuga smithi — BAIG et al. 2008
Pangshura smithii — DAS et al. 2008
Kachuga smithii — MURTHY 2010: 23
Pangshura smithii smithii — RHODIN et al. 2010
Pangshura smithii smithii — TTWG 2021
Pangshura smithii smithii — PRASCHAG 2023

Batagur smithii pallidipes MOLL 1987
Kachuga smithii pallidipes — OBST 2003: 17
Kachuga smithii pallidipes — MURTHY 2010: 23
Pangshura smithii pallidipes — RHODIN et al. 2010
Pangshura smithii pallidipes — TTWG 2017
Pangshura smithii pallidipes — TTWG 2021
Pangshura smithii pallidipes — PRASCHAG 2023 
DistributionPakistan, NW India (Indus River system, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Assam), Bangladesh (rarely in the Ganges River)

smithii: Bangladesh, India, Pakistan
pallidipes: India, Nepal

Type locality: "North-western India: Punjab; `River Chenab'".  
TypesSyntypes: BMNH 1947.3.4.69 and 1947.3.4.70.
Holotype: FMNH 224177, adult male, collected by E Moll 3 June 1983 [pallidipes] 
CommentDistribution: possibly in Bhutan (Lenz 2012 and references therein).

Habitat: freshwater (Rivers, swamps) 
EtymologyNamed after Andrew Smith (1797-1872), Scottish zoologist and first Superintendent of the South African Museum in Cape Town. 
  • Ali, Waqas; Arshad Javid, Ali Hussain & Syed Mohsin Bukhari 2018. Diversity and conservation of freshwater turtles in Pakistan: a review. Biodiversity 19 (1-2): 62-71 - get paper here
  • Auffenberg, Walter;Khan, Naeem Ahmed 1991. Studies of Pakistan reptiles: Notes on Kachuga smithi. Hamadryad 16: 25-29 - get paper here
  • Baig, KJ, Masroor, R., and Arshad, M. 2008. Biodiversity and ecology of the herpetofauna of Cholistan Desert, Pakistan. Russ. J. Herpetol. 15 (3): 193-205 - get paper here
  • BARHADIYA, G., AND C. GHOSH 2020. Geographic Distribution: Pangshura smithii (Brown Roofed Turtle). India: Delhi: East District. Herpetological Review 51: 536.
  • Basumatary, Rajeev and D.K. Sharma 2013. The turtle fauna of Kaziranga National Park, Assam, India with notes on natural history and conservation status. Herpetology Notes 6: 59-72
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Bour, R. 2008. Global diversity of turtles (Chelonii; Reptilia) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595:593–598 - get paper here
  • Das, I. et al. 2008. Tortoises and Freshwater Turtles of India. WWF/WII poster
  • Das, Indraneil & Abhijit Das 2017. A Naturalist’s Guide to the Reptiles of India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. John Beaufoy Publishing Ltd., Oxford, 176 pp.
  • Ernst,C.H. and Barbour,R.W. 1989. Turtles of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. - London
  • Gibbons, W. & Greene, J. 2009. Turtles: the animal answer guide. Johns Hopkins University Press, 176 pp.
  • Gray, J.E. 1863. Notice of a new species of Batagur. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1863: 253. - get paper here
  • Kästle , W., Rai, K. & Schleich, H.H. 2013. FIELD GUIDE to Amphibians and Reptiles of Nepal. ARCO-Nepal e.V., 625 pp. - get paper here
  • Khan, M.S. 2006. Amphibians and reptiles of Pakistan. Krieger, Malabar, 311 pp. - get paper here
  • Le, Minh; William P. McCord and John B. Iverson 2007. On the paraphyly of the genus Kachuga (Testudines: Geoemydidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 45: 398-404 - get paper here
  • Lenz, Norbert 2012. Von Schmetterlingen und Donnerdrachen - Natur und Kultur in Bhutan. Karlsruher Naturhefte 4, Naturkundemuseum Karlsruhe, 124 pp.
  • Masroor, R. 2012. A Contribution to the Herpetology of Northern Pakistan. SSAR, Ithaca [review in JoTT 4(6): 2670] - get paper here
  • Moll, E.O. 1987. Survey of the freshwater turtles of India. Part II. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 84 (1): 7-25 - get paper here
  • Murthy, T.S.N. 2010. The reptile fauna of India. B.R. Publishing, New Delhi, 332 pp.
  • Obst, F.J. 2003. Sumpfschildkröten. Draco 4 (13): 4-18 - get paper here
  • Praschag, Reiner 2023. Die Arten und Unterarten der Gattung Pangshura – ihre Lebensweise, Nahrung und Reproduktion. Elaphe 2024 (1): 22-35
  • Praschag, Reiner 2023. Dachschildkröten – die Gattung Pangshura. Elaphe 2024 (1): 12-21
  • Purkayastha J. 2013. An Amateur’s Guide to Reptiles of Assam. EBH Publishers (India) - get paper here
  • Purkayastha, J., DAS, I., Sengupta, S. 2015. Freshwater Turtles & Tortoises of South Asia. Bhabani Books, 138 pp. - get paper here
  • Purkayastha, Jayaditya; Ahmed Mahmadul Hassan, Hasanul Islam, Jessica Das, Manoj Sarma, Mituseela Basumatary, Nilakshi Sarma, Nishant Chatterjee, Sachin Singha, Vishnupriya Nair, Arundhati Purkayastha, Jayashree Dutta, Madhurima Das 2013. Turtles of the Temple Pond of Kamakhya, Assam, India. Reptile Rap (15): 11-15 - get paper here
  • Rais, M; J Rehman, S Baloch, SM Ali, I Hussain 2014. On the herpetofauna in Loi Bher Wildlife Park, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Taprobanica 6 (1): 56-58 - get paper here
  • Rais, Muhammad; Ayesha Akram, Syeda Maria Ali, Muhammad Arslan Asadi, Misbah Jahangir, Muhammad Jawad Jilani, <br />and Maqsood Anwar 2015. Qualitative Analysis of Factors Influencing the Diversity and Spatial Distribution of Herpetofauna in Chakwal Tehsil (Chakwal District), Punjab, Pakistan. Herp. Cons. Biol. 10 (3) - get paper here
  • Sahi D.N., Koul S. 2020. Annotated List of Amphibians and Reptiles of Jammu and Kashmir State. In: Dar G. & Khuroo A. (eds) Biodiversity of the Himalaya: Jammu and Kashmir State. Topics in Biodiversity and Conservation, vol 18. Springer, Singapore - get paper here
  • Saikia, U.; Sharma, D.K. & Sharma, R.M. 2007. Checklist of the Reptilian fauna of Himachal Pradesh, India. Reptile Rap (8): 6-9 - get paper here
  • Singh J, Dutta S.K., Singh H 2021. Herpetofauna of Punjab: The Field Guide. New Era Book Agency, Chandigarh, 82 pp.
  • Spinks, Phillip Q.; Shaffer, H. Bradley; Iverson, John B; McCord, William P. 2004. Phylogenetic hypotheses for the turtle family Geoemydidae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32(1):164-182 - get paper here
  • TTWG; Rhodin, A.G.J., Iverson, J.B., Bour, R., Fritz, U., Georges, A., Shaffer, H.B., and van Dijk, P.P. 2021. Turtles of the World: Annotated Checklist and Atlas of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution, and Conservation Status (9th Ed.). In: Rhodin, A.G.J., Iverson, J.B., van Dijk, P.P., Stanford, C.B., Goode, E.V., Buhlmann, K.A., and Mittermeier, R.A. (Eds.). Chelonian Research Monographs 8:1–472. doi:10.3854/crm.8.checklist.atlas.v9.2021. - get paper here
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