You are here » home advanced search Pantherophis emoryi

Pantherophis emoryi (BAIRD & GIRARD, 1853)

IUCN Red List - Pantherophis emoryi - Least Concern, LC

Can you confirm these amateur observations of Pantherophis emoryi?

Add your own observation of
Pantherophis emoryi »

Find more photos by Google images search: Google images

Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Lampropeltini, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
SubspeciesPantherophis emoryi emoryi (BAIRD & GIRARD 1853)
Pantherophis emoryi meahllmorum (SMITH et al. 1994)
Pantherophis emoryi slowinskii (BURBRINK 2002) 
Common NamesE: Great Plains Rat Snake
G: Präriekornnatter
E: Southern Plains Rat Snake [meahllmorum]
S: Ratonera de Emory
E: Slowinski ’s Cornsnake [slowinskii]
G: Slowinski-Kornnatter [slowinskii] 
SynonymScotophis emoryi BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 157
Scotophis calligaster KENNICOTT 1859: 88
Coluber rhinomegas COPE 1860: 255
Coluber emoryi — COPE 1886: 284
Coluber laetus BOULENGER 1894: 49
Elaphe laeta — TAYLOR 1935: 213
Elaphe laeta — TAYLOR 1939
Elaphe laeta intermontanus WOODBURY and WOODBURY 1942: 139
Elaphe quivira BURT 1946: 116 (nomen nudum)
Elaphe laeta intermontanus — JAMESON & FLURY 1949
Elaphe guttata emoryi — STEBBINS 1985: 186
Elaphe guttata emoryi — TANNER 1985: 630
Elaphe guttata emoryi — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 196
Elaphe emoryi — VAUGHAN et al. 1996
Elaphe guttata emoryi — CROTHER 2000: 61
Elaphe guttata emoryi — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 394
Elaphe guttata emoryi — TENNANT 2003: 403
Elaphe emoryi — BURBRINK 2002
Pantherophis emoryi — POTTS & COLLINS 2005
Pantherophis emoryi emoryi — SKUBOWSKI 2012
Pantherophis emoryi — CROTHER et al. 2012
Pantherophis emoryi — WALLACH et al. 2014: 528
Pantherophis emoryi emoryi — MARSHALL et al. 2021

Pantherophis emoryi meahllmorum (SMITH et al. 1994)
Elaphe guttata meahllmorum SMITH et al. 1994: 259
Elaphe guttata meahllmorum — CROTHER 2000: 61
Pantherophis emoryi meahllmorum — COLLINS et al. 2008
Pantherophis emoryi meahllmorum — SKUBOWSKI 2012
Pantherophis emoryi meahllmorum — MARSHALL et al. 2021

Pantherophis emoryi slowinskii (BURBRINK 2002)
Elaphe slowinskii BURBRINK 2002
Pantherophis slowinskii — JIANG et al. 2007
Pantherophis slowinskii — CROTHER et al. 2012
Pantherophis slowinskii — WALLACH et al. 2014: 530
Pantherophis emoryi slowinskii — MARSHALL et al. 2021 
DistributionUSA (SW Illinois, Kansas to SE Colorado and E New Mexico and south through Texas; disjunct areas in NE Utah)
N Mexico (to San Luis Potosí and N Veracruz, Chihuahua, N Durango, Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Quéretaro, Jalisco, Hidalgo, Aguascalientes)

meahllmorum: S Texas, Mexico (San Luis Potosí and N Veracruz, Chihuahua, N Durango, Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Quéretaro); Type locality: El Salto, San Luis Potosí, Mexico.

slowinskii: USA (Louisiana, E Texas); Type locality: Longleaf Pine Highway, 0.5 miles west of Hwy 119, Natchitoches Parish, Louisiana, USA  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: lost, was USNM, (lost fide Dowling,1951, Wallach et al. 2014).
Holotype: LSUM 55922 [slowinskii]
Holotype: UCM 46009, paratypes: MPM, ASUMZ, UIMNH, KU, UCM, UTA, EAL, UO, UTEP [meahllmorum] 
DiagnosisDescription: Compared to other members of the E. guttata complex, E.emoryi is more robust and has a larger head that is distinctly offset from the neck (Schultz,1996). Adults of this species reach a total length of 80 –150 cm and have 197 –236 ventral scales and 58 –83 subcaudal scales,with 27 –73 dorsal blotches (Schultz,1996).The dorsal ground color is gray,olive, or brown with brown or olive dorsal and lateral blotches with black borders.The pattern on the head is very similar to the other two species,whereas the belly may be only sparsely patterned (particularly in the southern part of the distribution)with small triangular or semi-circular blotches (Schultz,1996).

Description (slowinskii): Elaphe slowinskii is very similar to E. guttata in body shape and head markings, but is distinguished from the nearby southern E. guttata by lacking the brighter yellow and red dorsal color patterns (Vaughan et al., 1996). They generally have a grayish, brown, or tan ground color with dark red, maroon, or brownish blotches. In some specimens, the dark brown ground color may obscure the dorsal color pattern. The belly pattern may be checkered, but often displays smaller and more evenly paired rows of ventral blotches with some degree of peppering across the cream ventral ground color. The black margin surrounding the dorsal blotches at midbody tends to occupy only 25–50% of each scale in E. slowinskii, but usually occupies an entire scale in E. guttata. Some specimens of E. slowinskii appear similar to E. emoryi. However, most E. emoryi tend to be gray with dark gray or olive colored blotches and often have more sparsely patterned bellies than E. slowinskii (Vaughan et al., 1996). The number of combined dorsal body and tail blotches in E. slowinskii (mean=48, range=42–56, n = 17) are greater than that of E. guttata (mean=38, range=34–47, n = 18) and less than that of E. emoryi (mean=58, range=48–65, n = 19). The width of dorsal blotches at midbody,measured in number of scales, in E. slowinskii (mean=13, range=10.5–15, and n = 17) is less than E. guttata (mean=16.0, range=13–19, and n = 18) and greater than E. emoryi (mean=12, range=9–15, and n = 19). The length of dorsal blotches at midbody, measured in number of scales, in E. slowinskii (mean=4, range=3–5, and n = 17) is less than E. guttata (mean=6, range=5–7, and n = 18) and greater than E. emoryi (mean=4, range=2.5–5.5, and n = 19). (Smith et al. 1994)

Diagnosis (meahllmorum). A member of the E. guttata complex, having "parallel neck stripes crossing the parietals and normally uniting on the frontal" (Thomas, 1974:57); no ontogenetic change in pattern; a postorbital stripe extending onto or beyond infralabials; ventrals and subcaudals not exceeding 232 and 86 in males, 240 and 83 in females, respectively (Thomas, 1974:98); venter usually distinctly checkerboard like in pattern, light areas between dark rectangles usually white, sharply contrasting with pigmented areas; usually two, largely continuous black stripes on subcaudal surface. Distinct from E. g. guttata in having dark gray, olive, or gray-brown dorsal blotches on a light gray background (vs reddish or orange blotches and ground color), and from E. g. emoryi in having 44.5 or fewer dorsal blotches on body (100%, vs 2%). (Smith et al. 1994)

Description of holotype (meahllmorum). A young adult female, s-v 517 mm, tail 113 mm, tail/total length ratio 0.1794. Specimen well preserved and in good condition except for a deep cut on right side of neck from midline between posterior genials to level of ventral 14, and a more superficial cut on left side between levels of ventrals 20 and 34. Preoculars 1-1; postoculars 2-2; temporals 2-2-3 on both sides; supralabials 8-8; infralabials 12-12; scale rows 25-29-19; ventral 223; subcaudals 71 (plus 2-4 missing at tip); anal divided; median dorsals weakly keeled, beginning with the vertebral scale row posterior to the anterior third of body (where all dorsals are smooth) and increasing within a span of 20 ventrals to the median eight rows; no keels on tail, others smooth or very faintly keeled; two apical pits on all dorsal scales of both body and tail, except erratic (present, absent or only one of the pair, usually the more medial one, present) on the first dorsal scale row. (Smith et al. 1994)

Coloration (meahllmorum): Dark markings gray-brown, black-edged; a dark bar across inter nasals, extending onto supralabials and rostral; an interorbital dark bar continuous with a postocular dark bar ending on infralabials at rictus oris; a pair of longitudinal, short cranionuchal dark stripes beginning posteriorly at level of ventral five, uniting on frontal; right cranionuchal dark stripe narrowly connected with first blotch on trunk; a small, elongate, medial dark spot on posterior extremity of interparietal suture, extending posteriorly onto anterior three rows of nuchals; 35 dorsal dark blotches on body, 13 on tail; body blotches mostly about as broad as long, extending to 7th-9th-5th scale rows (anterior, middle, rear trunk regions), separated medially by spaces about 1.5 scale rows long; most of the anterior blotches with a transverse light area surrounding black-centered scales; 25th blotch more elongate than others and almost completely split by that transverse light area with black-centered scales (much like the 9th blotch shown in Fig. 2); lateral spots distinct, relatively large (0.25 size of dorsal blotches), mostly alternating with dorsal blotches, not reaching ventrals, but alternating or coinciding with small, more numerous sublateral spots (covering the equivalent of 2-5 dorsal scales) that encroach onto the ends of the ventrals. First ventral with a median or paramedian dark spot, no. 17; 17 ventrals among the anterior 50 with one or more such spots; little scattered pigment on venter between spots; checkered ventral pattern moderately dense, approximately 2/3 of ventrals involved; paired subcaudal stripes continuous only on posterior 3/5 of tail. (Smith et al. 1994)

Variation and comparison (meahllmorum): Smith et al. 1994: 265. 
CommentHybridization: Vaughan et al. (1996 Texas Journal of Science 48(1): 175-190) in their detailed study clearly demonstrated that the defined, diagnosed, allopatric population emoryi is a distinct species (see the map on page 185). [from: http://eagle.cc.ukans.edu/~cnaar/serpentes.html]. However, it intergrades with Elaphe guttata guttata in S-Arkansas, NW-Louisiana and adjacent E-Texas (STEBBINS 1985).

Subspecies: Pantherophis emoryi meahllmorum (SMITH et al. 1994) was synonymized with emoryi (BURBRINK 2002), but revalidated by Marshall et al. 2021.

Distribution: See Marshall et al. 2021 also for a map of the 3 subspecies and the areas of intergradation.

Synonymy partly after BURBRINK 2002.

Habitat: partly arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018). 
EtymologyThe specific epithet is a patronym honoring the collector, William Hemsley Emory.

P. e. meahllmorum (pronounced as though spelled "mealmorum") is derived from the names of 11 associates of HMS to whom he is indebted particularly for absolutely vital aid in preparation for publication of volume seven of the series jointly authored by himself and his wife and co-worker, Rozella B. Smith, entitled A Synopsis of the Herpetofauna of Mexico. The new name is a collective, proposed in honor of the following individuals, now or formerly at the University of Colorado, listed with their designated letters in the order of occurrence IN the name: m, Dr. Michael J. Preston, Department of English; e, Mary E. Marcotte, EPOB (Department of Environmental, Population and Organismic Biology) secretary; a, Ann E. Carrington, do.; h, Laura J. Heigl, do.; l, Linda K. Bowden, do.; l, Dr. William M Lewis, Chairman, EPOB; m, Dr. Michael D. Breed, EPOB, former Chairman; o, Phyllis A. O'Connell, EPOB secretary; r, Dean Charles R. Middleton, College of Arts and Sciences; u, Dr. Shi-Kuei Wu, Curator of Zoology, University of Colorado Museum; and m, Dr. Michael C. Grant, EPOB, former Chairman.

P. e. slowinskii was named after Joseph Bruno Slowinski (1963-2001), American herpetologist, who died from snakebite at age 38. For an obituary see Donnelly & Crother 2003. For more biographical details see James (2008). 
References
  • Baird, S. F. and C. Girard. 1853. Catalogue of North American Reptiles in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Part 1.-Serpents. Smithsonian Inst., Washington, xvi + 172 pp. - get paper here
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Blair, Kathleen;Staley, James R., II;Smith, Hobart M. 1993. Elaphe guttata emoryi (Great Plains Rat Snake). USA: Texas. Herpetological Review 24 (2): 67 - get paper here
  • Bohannon, A M; MacLaren, A R & Forstner, M R J 2018. Geographic Distribution: Pantherophis emoryi (Great Plains Ratsnake). Herpetological Review 49 (2): 287 - get paper here
  • Bohannon, A.M.A., MacLaren, A.R. & Forstner, M.R.J. 2018. Geographic Distribution: Pantherophis emoryi (Great Plains Ratsnake). Herpetological Review 49 (1): 78. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1894. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume II., Containing the Conclusion of the Colubridæ Aglyphæ. British Mus. (Nat. Hist.), London, xi, 382 pp. - get paper here
  • Buckner, Sandra D.;Franz, Richard 1994. Elaphe guttata (corn snake). Bahamas: Little Bahama Bank. Herpetological Review 25 (4): 166 - get paper here
  • Burbrink, F.T. 2002. Phylogeographic analysis of the cornsnake (Elaphe guttata) complex as inferred from maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 25 (3): 465-476 - get paper here
  • BURKETT, DOUG. 2021. Geographic distribution: PANTHEROPHIS EMORYI (Great Plains Ratsnake). USA: NEW MEXICO: Lincoln Co. Herpetological Review 52 (1): 88. - get paper here
  • Burkett, Doug; Kamees, Larry; Painter, Charles W. 1998. Geographic Distribution. Elaphe emoryi. Herpetological Review 29 (2): 112 - get paper here
  • Calzada-Arciniega, Rafael Alejandro, César Toscano-Flores and Maria Isabel Briseño-Sánchez. 2015. Geographic Distribution: Pantherophis emoryi (Great Plains ratsnake). Herpetological Review 46 (2): 221 - get paper here
  • Carbajal-Márquez, Rubén A. and Gustavo E. Quintero-Díaz 2016. The Herpetofauna of Aguascalientes, México. Revista Mexicana de Herpetología 2(1):
  • Chiszar, David; Drew, J. David; Smith, Hobart M. 1992. A range extension of the Great Plains rat snake in eastern Colorado. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 27 (8): 165 - get paper here
  • Cobarrubias, Edgar Flores; Daniel Cruz-Sáenz, and David Lazcano 2012. Notes on the Herpetofauna of Western Mexico 6: Amphibians and Reptiles of Hostotipaquillo, Jalisco, Mexico. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 47 (2):21-26 - get paper here
  • Collins, J.T. & Collins, S.L. 2009. A pocket guide to Kansas snakes, 2nd ed. Great Plains Nature Center, Wichita, 69 pp.
  • Collins, J.T. & Collins, S.L. 2010. A pocket guide to Kansas snakes, 3rd ed. Great Plains Nature Center, Wichita, 69 pp.
  • Collins, Joseph T. & Travis W. Taggart 2008. An alternative classification of the New World Rat Snakes (genus Pantherophis [Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae]). Journal of Kansas Herpetology 26: 16-18 - get paper here
  • Conant,R. & Collins,J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern/Central North America, 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin (Boston/New York), xx + 450 p.
  • Cope, E.D. 1860. Catalogue of the Colubridae in the Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, with notes and descriptions of new species. Part II. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 12: 241-266 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1886. Thirteenth contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 23: 271-287 [1885] - get paper here
  • Crother, B. I. 2000. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. Herpetological Circular 29: 1-82
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Davis, D. R. & Desantis, D. L. 2012. Geographic distribution: Pantherophis emoryi (Great Plains ratsnake). Herpetological Review 43: 449 - get paper here
  • Dixon, James R. 2000. Amphibians and reptiles of Texas, second edition. Texas A&M University Press, 421 pp.
  • Dixon, James R. and Julio A. Lemos-Espinal 2010. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of Queretaro, Mexico. Tlalnepantla UNAM, 428 pp.
  • Donnelly, Maureen A. & Brian I. Crother 2003. Obituary: JOSEPH BRUNO SLOWINSKI 1962–2001. Copeia 2003 (2): 424–428 - get paper here
  • Dowling, Herndon G. 1951. A taxonomic study of the ratsnakes, genus Elaphe Fitzinger. I. The status of the name Scotophis laetus Baird and Girard (1853). Copeia 1951 (1): 39-44 - get paper here
  • Duran M 2021. An annotated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of North Padre Island, Texas, USA, with comparisons to adjacent barrier island and mainland herpetofauna. ZooKeys 1073: 119-175 - get paper here
  • Fernández-Badillo, Leonardo & Irene Goyenechea-Mayer Goyenechea 2010. Anfibios y reptiles del valle del Mezquital, Hidalgo, México. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 81: 705- 712
  • Fernández-Badillo, Leonardo; Norma Leticia Manríquez-Morán; Jesús Martín Castillo-Cerón & Irene Goyenechea 2016. Análisis herpetofaunístico de la zona árida del estado de Hidalgo. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 156–170 - get paper here
  • Grelle, A. M., Bolling, J., Newby, J. L., Estes, J., Haskens, J., Garey, L. K., et al. 2012. Pantherophis emoryi (Great Plains ratsnake) diet. Herpetological Review 43: 496 - get paper here
  • Harrington, Sean M; Jordyn M de Haan, Lindsey Shapiro, Sara Ruane 2018. Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (1): 61–71 - get paper here
  • Hart, Sean;Manchester, Sharon 1993. Elaphe guttata emoryi (Great Plains rat snake). USA: Colorado. Herpetological Review 24 (4): 156 - get paper here
  • Heimes, P. 2016. Snakes of Mexico. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 572 pp
  • James, J. 2008. The Snake Charmer. Hyperion eBooks, 260 pp.
  • Jameson, David H.;Flury, Alvin G. 1949. The reptiles and amphibians of the Sierra Vieja Range of southwestern Texas. Texas Journal of Science 1 (2): 54-77 - get paper here
  • Jiang Z, Castoe T, Austin C, Burbrink F, Herron M, McGuire J, Parkinson C, Pollock D 2007. Comparative mitochondrial genomics of snakes: extraordinary substitution rate dynamics and functionality of the duplicate control region. BMC Evolutionary Biology 7:123 - get paper here
  • KJ & Lodrigue, K. 2010. The Great Plains Ratsnake. Elaphe emoryi. Reptilia (GB) (69): 44-49 - get paper here
  • Klug, Page E.; Jennifer Fill, and Kimberly A. With 2011. Spatial Ecology of Eastern Yellow-Bellied Racer (Coluber constrictor flaviventris) and Great Plains Rat Snake (Pantherophis emoryi) in a Contiguous Tallgrass-Prairie Landscape. Herpetologica Dec 2011, Vol. 67, No. 4: 428-439. - get paper here
  • Köhler, G. & Berg, P. 2005. Kornnattern. Herpeton Verlag, Offenbach, 142 pp.
  • Lawson, Dwight P.;Keck, Michael B.;Jennings, W. Bryan 1993. Elaphe guttata (corn snake). USA: Texas. Herpetological Review 24 (3): 109 - get paper here
  • Lazcano D, Nevárez-de los Reyes M, García-Padilla E, Johnson JD, Mata-Silva V, DeSantis DL, Wilson LD. 2019. The herpetofauna of Coahuila, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 13(2) [General Section]: 31–94 (e189) - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal JA, Smith GR, Gadsden-Esparza H, Valdez-Lares R, Woolrich-Piña GA 2018. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of Durango, Mexico, with comparisons with adjoining states. ZooKeys 748: 65-87 - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal JA, Smith GR, Woolrich-Piña GA 2018. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of San Luis Potosí, Mexico, with comparisons with adjoining states. ZooKeys 753: 83-106 - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal, Julio A. and James R. Dixon 2013. Amphibians and Reptiles of San Luis Potosí. Eagle Mountain Publishing, xii + 300 pp.
  • Lemos-Espinal, Julio A., Geoffrey R. Smith 2015. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of Hidalgo, Mexico. Check List 11 (3): 1642 - get paper here
  • Leonard, T. 1994. Elaphe emoryi (Great Plains rat snake). USA: Nebraska. Herpetological Review 25 (1): 34 - get paper here
  • Marcou, Zachary John 2018. Delineating Metrics of Diversity for a Snake Community in a Rare Ecosystem. MSc Thesis, Stephen F. Austin State University - get paper here
  • Meyer, R.;Nagl, W. 1993. Somatic Polyploidy in Extraembryonic Membranes of the Snake, Elaphe guttata. Protoplasma 172 (2-4): 132-135 - get paper here
  • Miller, Brian T.;Miller, Joyce L. 1993. Elaphe guttata guttata (corn snake). USA: Tennessee. Herpetological Review 24 (4): 156 - get paper here
  • Nevárez-de-los-Reyes, Manuel, David Lazcano, Elí García-Padilla, Vicente Mata-Silva, Jerry D. Johnson and Larry David Wilson. 2016. The Herpetofauna of Nuevo León, Mexico: Composition, Distribution, and Conservation. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (3): 558–638 - get paper here
  • Pawley, R. & Stuart, J.N. 2017. Geographic Distribution: Pantherophis emoryi (Great Plains Ratsnake). Herpetological Review 48 (4): 814 - get paper here
  • Potts, George D. & Joseph T. Collins 2005. A CHECKLIST OF THE VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF KANSAS. Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks, 50 pp.
  • Pyron, R.Alexander; Frank T. Burbrink 2009. Neogene diversification and taxonomic stability in the snake tribe Lampropeltini (Serpentes: Colubridae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 52 (2): 524-529 - get paper here
  • Quijano, Fernando Mendoza; Avila, Ricardo Reyes; Narvaez, Laura Contreras 1998. Geographic Distribution. Elaphe guttata meahllmorum. Herpetological Review 29 (2): 112 - get paper here
  • Quintero-Díaz, Gustavo Ernesto; Armando Cardona-Arceo, Rubén Alonso Carbajal-Márquez 2016. The Great Plains Ratsnake, Pantherophis emoryi Baird & Girard, 1853, (Squamata: Colubridae), a new state record from Aguascalientes, México. Check List 12 (3): - get paper here
  • Raymond, L.R., & L.M. Hardy 1983. Taxonomic status of the corn snake Elaphe guttata (Linnaeus) in Louisiana and eastern Texas. Southwestern Naturalist 28 (1):105-107. - get paper here
  • Reid, D. 1983. An account of reproduction in the Great Plains rat snake (Elaphe guttata emoryi). Litteratura Serpentium 3 (2/3)61-65 - get paper here
  • Roussos, Stephanos A. 2014. Geographical Distribution: Pantherophis emoryi (Great Plains ratsnake). Herpetological Review 45 (4): 665 - get paper here
  • SKUBOWIUS, Bernd 2012. Ein Besuch bei den Präriekornnattern in Texas. Terraria-Elaphe 2012 (6): 26-30 - get paper here
  • SKUBOWIUS, Bernd 2012. Die Slowinski-Kornnatter, Pantherophis slowinskii: ein seltener Gast in deutschen Terrarien. Terraria-Elaphe 2012 (6): 31-37 - get paper here
  • Smith, H.M., D. Chiszar, J.R. Staley & K. Tepedelen 1994. Population relationships in the corn snake Elaphe guttata (Reptilia: Serpentes). Texas Journal of Science 46 (3): 259-292. - get paper here
  • Taggart, Travis W. 1993. Elaphe emoryi (Great Plains Rat Snake). USA: Kansas. Herpetological Review 24 (2): 67 - get paper here
  • Tanner, Wilmer W. 1985. Snakes of Western Chihuahua. Great Basin Naturalist 45 (4): 615-676 - get paper here
  • Taylor, Edward H. 1935. Arkansas amphibians and reptiles in the Kansas University Museum. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 22 (10): 207-218 - get paper here
  • Taylor, Edward H. 1939. Some Mexican serpents. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 26 (13): 445-487 - get paper here
  • Taylor-Young, M. 2011. The Guide to Colorado Reptiles and Amphibians. Fulcrum Publishing, Golden, Colorado, 169 pp.
  • Tennant, A. 2003. Snakes of North America - Eastern and Central Regions, revised edition. Lone Star Books, 605 pp.
  • Tennant, A. & Bartlett, R.D. 2000. Snakes of North America - Eastern and Central Regions. Gulf Publishing, Houston, TX, 588 pp.
  • Terán-Juárez, Sergio A., Elí García Padilla, Vicente Mata-Silva, Jerry D. Johnson and Larry David Wilson. 2016. The herpetofauna of Tamaulipas, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (1): 43–113 - get paper here
  • Thomas, R. A.;Dixon, J. R. 1976. Scale row formulae in Elaphe guttata (Linnaeus) and notes on their interpretation. Natural History Miscellanea, The Chicago Academy of Science 195 (January 15): 1-5 - get paper here
  • Thomas, Robert A. 1975. Taxonomic chaos: Elaphe guttata (Linnaeus), a case in point. Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 11 (4): 171-176 - get paper here
  • Toepfer, Karen 1993. Elaphe emoryi (Great Plains rat snake). USA: Kansas. Herpetological Review 24 (4): 156 - get paper here
  • Valdez-Lares, R.; R. Muñiz-Martínez; E.Gadsden; G. Aguirre-León; G. Castañeda-Gaytán; R. Gonzalez-Trápaga 2013. Checklist of amphibians and reptiles of the state of Durango, México. Check List 9 (4):714-724 - get paper here
  • Vásquez-Cruz, V., Olivares-Blanco, E., Peralta-Hernández, R., Castillo-Juárez, J. L., & Molina-Hernández, A. 2021. Extension of the distribution of Pantherophis emoryi (Baird & Girard, 1853 (Squamata: Colubridae) in Mexico. Cuad. herpetol. 35 (2): 353-356 - get paper here
  • Vaughan, R. Kathryn; Dixon, James R.; Thomas, Robert A. 1996. A reevaluation of populations of the corn snake Elaphe guttata (Reptilia: Serpentes: Colubridae) in Texas. Texas Journal of Science 48 (1): 175-190 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Warfel, Timothy. 2014. Geographic Distribution: Pantherophis emoryi (Great Plains ratsnake). Herpetological Review 45 (3): 466 - get paper here
  • Weidler, J M 2019. Protected areas of Texas in relation to Texas reptiles. Herpetological Review 50 (3): 462-473 - get paper here
  • Werler, John E. & James R. Dixon 2000. Texas Snakes. University of Texas Press, 544 pages
  • Wilgers, D.J.; Horne, E.A.; Sandercock, B.K. & Volkmann, A.W. 2006. Effects of rangeland management on community dynamics of the herpetofauna of the Tall-grass Prairie [Flint Hills, Kansas/Oklahoma]. Herpetologica 62 (4): 378-388 - get paper here
  • Williams, Avery A. 1998. Geographic distribution. Elaphe guttata. Herpetological Review 29 (3): 176 - get paper here
  • Woodbury, Angus M.;Woodbury, Dixson M. 1942. Studies of the rat snake, Elaphe laeta, with description of a new subspecies. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 55: 133-142 - get paper here
 
External links  
Is it interesting? Share with others:


Please submit feedback about this entry to the curator