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Paraxenodermus borneensis (BOULENGER, 1899)

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Higher TaxaXenodermidae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Borneo Red Snake 
SynonymStoliczkaia borneensis BOULENGER 1899: 452
Stoliczkaia borneensis — DE ROOIJ 1917: 45
Stoliczkia borneensis — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 394
Stoliczkia borneensis — MALKMUS et al. 2002
Stoliczkia borneensis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 689
Paraxenodermus borneensis — DEEPAK et al. 2021 
DistributionMalaysia (Borneo/Sabah),
Indonesia (Kalimantan)

Type locality: Mount Kina Balu, 4200 ft., North Borneo.  
TypesType: BMNH 1946.1.15.58 (and possibly additional specimens). 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus). This genus can be diagnosed based on the combination of the following features: (1) maxillary teeth small and subequal, (2) head very distinct from (much wider than) ‘neck’, with large shields on dorsal aspect, (3) posterior one-third of the head and posterior temporal region covered with small scales like those of the anterior of the body, (4) numerous small scales between parietal and supralabial shields immediately behind eye, (5) a row of 4–6 small scales between the frontal and prefrontal shields, (6) 10–11 supralabials, (7) nostril in a large concave nasal, (8) body slender and somewhat laterally compressed, (9) ventrals large, and (10) dorsum with numerous dorsolateral and middorsal pale blotches, venter pale with brown patches and subcaudals dark grey (Deepak et al. 2021). 
CommentEndemic to Borneo but apparently known only from 3 collected specimens. 
EtymologyNamed after its distribution on Borneo (Indonesia).

The generic name Paraxenodermus is composed of the modern Latin generic name Xenodermus and the Latin adjective par (paris), meaning, among other possibilities, “similar to”. 
  • Boulenger, G A. 1899. Description of three new reptiles and a new batrachian from Mt. Kina Balu, North Borneo. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 4: 451 - 453 - get paper here
  • Das, I. 2012. A Naturalist's Guide to the Snakes of South-East Asia: Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Myanmar, Borneo, Sumatra, Java and Bali. Oxford J, ohn Beaufoy Publishing - get paper here
  • Das, Indraneil 2006. Crocker Range National Park, Sabah, as a refuge for Borneo's montane herpetofauna. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 4 (1): 3-11 - get paper here
  • de Rooij, N. DE 1917. The Reptiles of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Il. Ophidia. Leiden (E. J. Brill), xiv + 334 S. - get paper here
  • Deepak V, Lalronunga S, Lalhmingliani E, Das A, Narayanan S, Das I, Gower DJ 2021. Phylogenetic relationships of xenodermid snakes (Squamata: Serpentes: Xenodermidae), with the description of a new genus. Vertebrate Zoology 71: 747-763 - get paper here
  • LALRONUNGA, S., LALHMANGAIHA, K., ZOSANGLIANA, I., LALHMINGLIANI, E., GOWER, D. J., DAS, A., & DEEPAK, V. 2021. A new species of Stoliczkia Jerdon, 1870 (Serpentes: Xenodermidae) from Mizoram, India. Zootaxa 4996 (3): 555-568 - get paper here
  • Malkmus, R.; Manthey, U.; Vogel, G. Hoffmann, P. & Kosuch, J. 2002. Amphibians and reptiles of Mount Kinabalu (North Borneo). A.R.G. Ganther Verlag, Rugell, 404 pp.
  • Manthey, U. & Grossmann, W. 1997. Amphibien & Reptilien Südostasiens. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 512 pp. - get paper here
  • Manthey,U. 1983. Exkursion am Mt. Kinabalu (4101 m), Nordborneo, Teil 3: Checkliste der Herpetofauna oberhalb 600 m ü. NN. Herpetofauna 5 (23): 20-31 - get paper here
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Stuebing, R.B. & INGER, R.F. 1999. A field guide to the snakes of Borneo. Natural history Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, 254 pp. [corrections in HR 31: 124]. - get paper here
  • Stuebing, R.B., Inger, R.F. & Lardner, B. 2014. A field guide to the snakes of Borneo, second edition. Natural history Publications (Borneo)
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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