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Pareas kaduri BHOSALE, PHANSALKAR, SAWANT, GOWANDE, PATEL & MIRZA, 2020

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Higher TaxaPareidae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymPareas kaduri BHOSALE, PHANSALKAR, SAWANT, GOWANDE, PATEL & MIRZA 2020 
DistributionIndia (Arunachal Pradesh)

Type locality: Arunachal Pradesh, Lohit District, outskirts of Kamlang Wildlife Sanctuary, found along the road leading to Hawa camp from Parshuram Kund; 27.880711° N, 96.363239° E; 350 m elevation (Datum WGS84)  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: BNHS 3574, male, adult; 23 Jul. 2019; Harshal Bhosale, Mandar Savant, Pushkar Phansalkar and Gaurang Gowande leg.
Paratypes: NCBS BH655–BH656, female. Same collection data as for holotype; BNHS 3575 • 2 males; same collection data as for holotype; 28 Jul. 2019; Zeeshan Mirza, Harshal Bhosale, Mandar Savant, Pushkar Phansalkar and Gaurang Gowande leg.
 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: A new species of Pareas bearing the following suite of characters: (1) SVL 455–550 mm, (2) TaL/ TL 0.184–0.207, (3) 15 dorsal scale rows (DSR) throughout body and mid-dorsal vertebral scale rows enlarged, 8 rows keeled in males, (4) loreal not touching orbit, (5) ventrals 160–183, (6) subcaudals 65–70 in males, 52 in one female specimen, (7) hemipenis short, unilobed, (8) 6–7 maxillary teeth, (9) dorsum brown with thin black transverse bands, the head with a large black blotch from which two longitudinal black stripes (3–4 scales wide) run on each side of the neck leaving a pale central portion (from Bhosale et al. 2020).

Comparisons: vertebral scales enlarged (vs not enlarged in P. chinensis (Barbour, 1912), P. macularius Theobald, 1868, P. margaritophorus (Jan 1866), P. vindumi Vogel, 2015); loreal not in contact with orbit (vs in contact in P. boulengeri (Angel, 1920), P. monticola (Cantor, 1839), P. stanleyi (Boulenger, 1914), P. vindumi) and Amblycephalus yunnanensis Vogt, 1922; eight mid-dorsal vertebral scales keeled (all scales smooth in P. boulengeri and Amblycephalus kuangtungensis Vogt, 1922, 9–13 keeled dorsal scales in P. komaii (Maki, 1931), 3–5 in P. modestus); two anterior temporals (vs one in P. nigriceps Guo & Deng, 2009); ventrals 160–183 (vs 195–213 in P. nuchalis (Boulenger, 1900), 189–194 in P. iwasakii (Maki, 1937), 151–160 in P. stanleyi, 190–196 in P. monticola, 130–160 in P. margaritophorus), 6–7 maxillary teeth (vs 4–5 in P. chinensis (Barbour, 1912) and P. boulengeri, 3–5 in P. menglaensis Wang, Che, Liu, Li, Jin, Jiang, Shi & Guo, 2020); prefrontals in contact with orbit (vs not in contact in P. carinatus (Boie, 1828)); subcaudals 65–70 in males, 52 in female (vs 71–79 in P. atayal You, Poyarkov & Lin, 2015, 37–45 in P. andersonii); single nasal (vs two in P. nuchalis and P. stanleyi); dentition asymmetry index 4.55 in males (13.51 in P. komaii, 29.03 in P. atayal).
The new species shares several characters with members of its clade and is here compared to each species in greater detail based on differing and non-overlapping characters. The new species differs from P. formosensis in bearing keeled dorsal scales (vs smooth in P. formosensis), dentition asymmetry index 4.55 in males (vs 16.13 in P. formosensis).
The new species differs from P. mengziensis Wang, Che, Liu, Li, Jin, Jiang, Shi & Guo, 2020 in bearing 6–7 maxillary teeth (vs 3–5 in P. mengziensis) and in having the dorsum with thin black bands (vs connected black reticulations throughout the body in P. mengziensis).
The new species is most similar to P. hamptoni in sharing the plesiomorphic state, where the loreal shield does not touch the orbit and is separated by the preocular. However, the new species differs from the species as follows: ventrals 160–183 (vs 197–202); two anterior temporals (vs a single temporal scale in P. hamptoni); subcaudals 65–70 in males, 52 in female (vs 96 in P. hamptoni); bearing 8 keeled dorsal scales (vs only a single row keeled in P. hamptoni); hemipenis unilobed and not forked (vs deeply forked in P. hamptoni) (from Bhosale et al. 2020). 
Comment 
EtymologyNamed after wildlife photographer Sandesh Kadur for his contribution to biodiversity documentation in the Himalayas, in particular Arunachal Pradesh, as well as for his constant support to the authors during their expedition. 
References
  • Bhosale, H., Phansalkar, P., Sawant, M., Gowande, G., Patel, H., & Mirza, Z. A. 2020. A new species of snail-eating snakes of the genus Pareas Wagler, 1830 (Reptilia: Serpentes) from eastern Himalayas, India. European Journal of Taxonomy, 729(1), 54–73 - get paper here
 
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