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Pareas macularius THEOBALD, 1868

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Higher TaxaPareidae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Mountain Slug Snake
G: Weissflecken-Schneckennatter 
SynonymPareas macularius THEOBALD 1868: 54
Pareas macularius — SMITH 1943: 118
Pareas macularius — TAYLOR 1965
Pareas macularius — DAS 1996: 58
Pareas macularius — CHAN-ARD et al. 1999: 177
Pareas macularius — SCHLEICH & KÄSTLE 2000: 19
Pareas macularius — WHITAKER & CAPTAIN 2004
Pareas macularius — GUO & DENG 2008
Pareas macularius — NGUYEN et al. 2009
Pareas macularius — WALLACH et al. 2014: 536
Pareas macularius — CHAN-ARD et al. 2015: 161
Pareas macularius — NGUYEN et al. 2018
Pareas macularius — ZAHER et al. 2019
Pareas (Eberhardtia) macularius — POYARKOV et al. 2022 
DistributionIndia ? (Darjeeling, Sikkim, West Bengal), Bangladesh ?, Myanmar (= Burma: Kachin, Mandalay, Mon, Shan, Tanintharyi, Yangon), Thailand (Chiang Mai), Laos (Xiangkhouang), Vietnam (Bac Kan, Cao Bang, Hai Duong, Hoa Binh, Lai Chau, Nghe An, Quang Binh, Vinh Phuc), S China (Yunnan, Guangxi, Guangdong, Guizhou)

Type locality: “Tenasserim” [= Tanintharyi Div., S Myanmar]. Emended to Martaban, Tenasserim [= Mottama, Mon Div., S Myanmar, 16°34’N, 97°37’E, elevation 10 m] fide Sclater 1891: 67.  
TypesSyntypes: BMNH 1925.12.22.1, BMNH 1926.3.17.9, and BMNH 1946.1.20.8 (formerly IMC 8024–26), longest syntype 610 mm (T.M. Berdmore, 1855–1856 via W. Theobald, Jr.). 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: macularius is keeled-scaled and has a “type II collar” while margaritophorus is smooth-scaled and has a “type I collar”. See Hauser 2017 for more details and figures, although his overall description is not very clear. 
CommentBehavior: nocturnal.

Synonymy: Pareas macularius Theobald,1868 was synonymized with Pareas
margaritophorus (Jan,1866) by HUANG 2004. However, genetic data suggests it is a valid species (e.g. Zaher et al. 2019. Wang et al. 2020, Suntrarachun et al. 2020, Vogel et al. 2020). Smith (1943), apparently acting as first revisor, chose macularius in preference to modestus. Theobald credited the name, macularius, to E. Blyth, but there is no indication that the description originated with Blyth. Zhao & Adler 1993 therefore credited it solely to Theobald.

Distribution: Not listed by GRANDISON 1977 for West Malaysia or Singapore. Possibly in Bhutan (SCHLEICH & KÄSTLE 2000, as P. macularius). See maps in Hauser 2017: 42 (Fig. 12) and Vogel et al. 2020: 554 (Fig. 1). 
  • Chan-ard, T., Parr, J.W.K. & Nabhitabhata, J. 2015. A field guide to the reptiles of Thailand. Oxford University Press, NY, 352 pp. [see book reviews by Pauwels & Grismer 2015 and Hikida 2015 for corrections] - get paper here
  • Chan-ard,T.; Grossmann,W.; Gumprecht,A. & Schulz,K. D. 1999. Amphibians and reptiles of peninsular Malaysia and Thailand - an illustrated checklist [bilingual English and German]. Bushmaster Publications, Würselen, Gemany, 240 pp. [book review in Russ. J Herp. 7: 87] - get paper here
  • Das,I. 1996. Biogeography of the Reptiles of South Asia. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Florida
  • Guo, Keji & Deng, Xuejiang 2009. A new species of Pareas (Serpentes: Colubridae: Pareatinae) from the Gaoligong Mountains, southwestern China. Zootaxa 2008: 53-60 - get paper here
  • Hauser, Sjon 2017. On the Validity of Pareas macularius Theobald, 1868 (Squamata: Pareidae) as a Species Distinct from Pareas margaritophorus (Jan in Bocourt, 1866) Tropical Natural History 17(1): 25-52 - get paper here
  • JANZEN, P. 2022. Amphibians and Reptiles of Thailand Part 4: The northern part of the Thai Peninsula and again the Namtok Samlan NP. Sauria 44 (1): 13-32 - get paper here
  • Nguyen TV, Brakels P, Maury N, Sudavanh S, Pawangkhanant P, Idiiatullina S, Lorphengsy S, Inkhavilay K, Suwannapoom C, Poyarkov NA. 2020. New herpetofaunal observations from Laos based on photo records. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 14(2) [General Section]: 218–249 (e248) - get paper here
  • Nguyen, S.V., Ho, C.T. and Nguyen, T.Q. 2009. Herpetofauna of Vietnam. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 768 pp.
  • Nguyen, Truong Quang; Tan Van Nguyen, Cuong The Pham, An Vinh Ong & Thomas Ziegler 2018. New records of snakes (Squamata: Serpentes) from Hoa Binh Province, northwestern Vietnam. Bonn zoological Bulletin 67 (1): 15–24 - get paper here
  • Poyarkov NA, Nguyen TV, Pawangkhanant P, Yushchenko PV, Brakels P, Nguyen LH, Nguyen HN, Suwannapoom C, Orlov N, Vogel G. 2022. An integrative taxonomic revision of slug-eating snakes (Squamata: Pareidae: Pareineae) reveals unprecedented diversity in Indochina. PeerJ 10: e12713 - get paper here
  • Schleich, H.H. & Kästle, W. 2002. Amphibians and Reptiles of Nepal. Koeltz, Königstein, 1200 pp. [review in Reptilia 40: 87] - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-Region. Reptilia and Amphibia. 3 (Serpentes). Taylor and Francis, London. 583 pp.
  • Suntrarachun, S., Chanhome, L., Hauser, S., Sumontha, M., & Kanya, K. 2020. Molecular Phylogenetic Support to the Resurrection of Pareas macularius from the Synonymy of Pareas margaritophorus (Squamata: Pareidae). Tropical Natural History, 20(2), 182-190
  • Taylor,E.H. 1965. The serpents of Thailand and adjacent waters. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 45 (9): 609-1096 - get paper here
  • Theobald, William 1868. Catalogue of the reptiles of British Birma, embracing the provinces of Pegu, Martaban, and Tenasserim; with descriptions of new or little-known species. Zool. J. Linnean Soc. 10: 4-67. - get paper here
  • Wall,F. 1909. Remarks on some little known Indian Ophidia. Records of the Indian Museum 3 (2): 145-150. - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wang K, Lyu ZT, Wang J, Qi S, Che J 2022. Updated Checklist and Zoogeographic Division of the Reptilian Fauna of Yunnan Province, China. Biodiversity Science 30 (4): 21326, 1–31 - get paper here
  • Wang P, Che J, Liu Q, Li K, Jin JQ, Jiang K, Shi L, Guo P 2020. A revised taxonomy of Asian snail-eating snakes Pareas (Squamata, Pareidae): evidence from morphological comparison and molecular phylogeny. ZooKeys 939: 45-64 - get paper here
  • Whitaker, Romulus and Ashok Captain 2004. Snakes of India. Draco Books, 500 pp., reprinted 2007 - get paper here
  • Zaher H, Murphy RW, Arredondo JC, Graboski R, Machado-Filho PR, Mahlow K, et al. 2019. Large-scale molecular phylogeny, morphology, divergence-time estimation, and the fossil record of advanced caenophidian snakes (Squamata: Serpentes). PLoS ONE 14(5): e0216148 - get paper here
  • Zuklin, Tomas; Nathanael Maury, Saly Sitthivong, Thong Van Pham, Olivier Le Duc, Cedric Bordes, Benjamin Leprince, Charlotte Ducotterd, Lo Van Oanh, Phimphasone Vilay, Vinh Quang Luu, Luca Luiselli 2021. The «Empty Forest Syndrome» and the Herpetofaunal Communities in Laos (South-Eastern Asia). Russian Journal of Herpetology 28 (6): 333-347 - get paper here
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