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Pareas modestus THEOBALD, 1868

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Higher TaxaPareidae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common Names 
SynonymPareas modestus THEOBALD 1868: 55
Amblycephalus modestus — WALL 1909: 149
Pareas modestus – BOULENGER 1896
Pareas macularius – WALL 1909
Pareas macularius – SMITH 1943 (in part)
Pareas macularius – WALLACH et al. 2014 (in part)
Pareas modestus — VOGEL et al. 2020

DistributionIndia (Mizoram), Myanmar (= Burma: Yangon)

Type locality: Rangun [sic], Pegu, Burma (now Yangon
Division, Myanmar).  
TypesHolotype: lost, was ZSI 8028 (fide Vogel et al. 2020). Other material: MZMU 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Pareas modestus differs from all other members of the genus Pareas by the combination of the following morphological characters: slender black body, small size (total length 226–357 mm); two anterior temporals, elongated; frontal scale is hexagonal with shield-shaped with the lateral sides converging posteriorly; anterior pair of chin shields is longer than broad; loreal not contacting the eye; prefrontal contacting the eye one subocular and one postocular; not enlarged median vertebral; 7–8 infralabial scales; 15 dorsal scale rows slightly keeled in 3–5 scale rows at midbody; 151–159 ventrals; 35–46 subcaudals, divided; body pattern uniform greyish black to black dorsum lacking cross-bands of bicolored spots and markings on the head; no collar; ventral surface uniform light greyish-white (Vogel et al. 2020: 562).

Colouration (in life base MZMU 275). Head and dorsal uniformly greyish-black to blackish dorsum with upper labials and temporals mottled in greyish-white; ventral shields up to the tail tip in uniform light greyish-white (Fig. 8C) (Vogel et al. 2020: 564). 
CommentBehavior: nocturnal.

Synonymy: See also Pareas macularius. Wall (1922) synonymized P. modestus (and P. andersonii) with P. macularius and most authors have followed this position, until Vogel et al. 2020 revalidated modestus.

Distribution: see map in Vogel et al. 2020: 554 (Fig. 1). 
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum, Vol. 3. London (Taylor & Francis), xiv + 727 pp. - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-Region. Reptilia and Amphibia. 3 (Serpentes). Taylor and Francis, London. 583 pp.
  • Theobald, William 1868. Catalogue of the reptiles of British Birma, embracing the provinces of Pegu, Martaban, and Tenasserim; with descriptions of new or little-known species. Zool. J. Linnean Soc. 10: 4-67. - get paper here
  • Vogel, G., Van Nguyen, T., Lalremsanga, H. T., Biakzuala, L., Hrima, V., & Poyarkov, N. A. 2020. Taxonomic reassessment of the Pareas margaritophorus-macularius species complex (Squamata, Pareidae). Vertebrate Zoology 70 (4): 547–569 - get paper here
  • Wall,F. 1909. Remarks on some little known Indian Ophidia. Records of the Indian Museum 3 (2): 145-150. - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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