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Pareas monticola (CANTOR, 1839)

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Higher TaxaPareidae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Common Slug Snake
Chinese: 喜山钝头蛇 
SynonymDipsas monticola CANTOR 1839: 53
Pareas monticola — GÜNTHER 1864: 327
Amblycephalus monticola — WALL 1908: 334
Pareas monticola — SMITH 1943: 118
Pareas monticola — DAS 1996: 58
Pareas monticola — GROSSMANN & TILLACK 2003
Pareas monticola — WALLACH et al. 2014: 537
Pareas monticola — VOGEL 2015 
DistributionIndia (Sikkim, Assam, Mizoram, Darjeeling; Arunachal Pradesh [A. Captain, pers. comm.]), E Nepal, Bhutan,
China (Xizang = Tibet, Yunnan), Vietnam, Myanmar

Type locality: Naga Hills, Asám (=Assam), India.  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesType: BMNH 1946.1.20.5 (and possibly additional specimens). 
DiagnosisDeascription: Eye large, its diameter greater than its distance from the mouth; internasals about half as long as the prefrontals, the latter touching the eye; frontal longer than its distance from the end of the snout, shorter than the parietals; loreal in broad contact with the eye; no preocular; a subocular touching the loreal and separating the anterior labials from the eye, sometimes touching the postocular; 2 postoculars, the lower elongated and extending below the eye; temporals 2+2 or 2+3; 6 or 7 supralabials, last longest, 3rd and 4th, or 4th only, touching the eye, rarely excluded by the suboculars. Scales smooth, the vertebral series enlarged. V. males 180-196, females 177-195; C. males 79-87, females 69-80. (Smith 1943: 118)

Hemipenis extending to the 15th caudal plate, deeply forked; except for a small area near the bifurcation the organ is calyculate, the calyces being smalI, increasing slightly in size as they near the bifurcation and having a lightly scalloped edges; for a ahort distance at the proximal end of the calyculate area the calyces are replaced by folds. (Smith 1943: 119)

Coloration: Brown above with vertical blackish bars on the sides, or extending across the back; a black line above the eye to the nape, and another from behind the eye to the angle of the mouth; top of head more or less thickly spotted with
black; yellowish below, with brown. (Smith 1943: 120) 
CommentNot listed under that name in WHITAKER & CAPTAIN 2004.

Habitat: partly arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018). 
EtymologyThe species name, ‘monticola’, is Latin for ‘inhabitant of the mountains’ (Latin “colere” = inhabiting). 
References
  • Anderson, J. 1871. On some Indian reptiles. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1871: 149-211 - get paper here
  • Athreya, R. 2006. Eaglenest Biodiversity Project (2003 – 2006): Conservation resources for Eaglenest wildlife sanctuary. Kaati Trust, Pune, 196 pp. - get paper here
  • Cantor, T. E. 1839. Spicilegium serpentium indicorum [part 1]. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1839: 31-34 - get paper here
  • Das, Abhijit; Uttam Saikia, B. H. C. K. Murthy, Santanu Dey and Sushil K. Dutta 2009. A herpetofaunal inventory of Barail Wildlife Sanctuary and adjacent regions, Assam, north-eastern India. Hamadryad 34 (1): 117 – 134 - get paper here
  • Das, I. 2012. A Naturalist's Guide to the Snakes of South-East Asia: Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Myanmar, Borneo, Sumatra, Java and Bali. Oxford J, ohn Beaufoy Publishing - get paper here
  • Dunaev E.A., Orlova V.F. 2003. Diversity of snakes (on the materials of the exposition of the Zoological Museum of the Moscow State University). Moscow: Moscow State University Press, 376 pp
  • Grossmann, W. & Tillack, F. 2003. On the taxonomic status of Asthenodipsas tropidonotus (LIDTH DE JEUDE 1923) and Pareas vertebralis BOULENGER 1900) (Serpentes: Colubridae: Pareatinae). Russ. J. Herpetol. 10 (3): 175-190 - get paper here
  • Günther, A. 1864. The Reptiles of British India. London (Taylor & Francis), xxvii + 452 pp. - get paper here
  • Guo, Keji & Deng, Xuejiang 2009. A new species of Pareas (Serpentes: Colubridae: Pareatinae) from the Gaoligong Mountains, southwestern China. Zootaxa 2008: 53-60 - get paper here
  • Hakim, J., Trageser, S. J., Ghose, A., Rashid, S. M. A., & Rahman, S. C. 2020. Amphibians and reptiles from Lawachara National Park in Bangladesh. Check List, 16: 1239 - get paper here
  • Harrington, Sean M; Jordyn M de Haan, Lindsey Shapiro, Sara Ruane 2018. Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (1): 61–71 - get paper here
  • Laltanpuia, T. C.; C. Lalrinchhana, Lalnunsanga, Lalrotluanga, Ricky Hmingthansanga, Arti Kumari, Vanlalsawmi Renthlei, S. Lalrintluangi and H. T. Lalremsanga 2008. Snakes (Reptilia: Serpentes) of Mizoram University Campus, Tanhril, Aizawl with notes on their identification keys [in Mizo]. Science Vision 8(4): 112-127 - get paper here
  • Lenz, Norbert 2012. Von Schmetterlingen und Donnerdrachen - Natur und Kultur in Bhutan. Karlsruher Naturhefte 4, Naturkundemuseum Karlsruhe, 124 pp.
  • Nguyen, S.V., Ho, C.T. and Nguyen, T.Q. 2009. Herpetofauna of Vietnam. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 768 pp.
  • Purkayastha J. 2013. An Amateur’s Guide to Reptiles of Assam. EBH Publishers (India) - get paper here
  • Rai, D., M. Pokharel & T.P. Rai 2021. Range extension of the Common Slug Snake Pareas monticola (Cantor, 1839) (Reptilia: Squamata: Pareidae): a new family record for Nepal. Journal of Threatened Taxa 13(9): 19373–19375 - get paper here
  • Sharma, R. C. 2004. Handbook Indian Snakes. AKHIL BOOKS, New Delhi, 292 pp.
  • Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-Region. Reptilia and Amphibia. 3 (Serpentes). Taylor and Francis, London. 583 pp.
  • Vogel, G. 2015. A New Montane Species of the Genus Pareas Wagler, 1830 (Squamata: Pareatidae) from Northern Myanmar. Taprobanica 7 (1): 1-7 - get paper here
  • Wall,F. 1908. Notes on a collection of snakes from the Khasi Hills, Assam. J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 18: 312-337 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wang, Kai; Jinlong Ren, Hongman Chen, Zhitong Lyu, Xianguang Guo Ke Jiang, Jinmin Chen, Jiatang Li, Peng Guo, Yingyong Wang, Jing Che 2020. The updated checklists of amphibians and reptiles of China. Biodiversity Science 28 (2): 189-218 - get paper here
  • Zhao, E.M. 2006. The snakes of China [in Chinese]. Hefei, China, Anhui Sience & Technology Publ. House, Vol. I, 372 pp., Vol. II (color plates), 280 pp.
  • Zhao,E. & Adler,K. 1993. Herpetology of China. SSAR, Oxford/Ohio, 1-522
 
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