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Phalotris reticulatus (PETERS, 1860)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Subspecies 
Common NamesPortuguese: Cabeça-Preta-Serrana, Coralina 
SynonymElapomorphus reticulatus PETERS 1860: 518
Phalotris reticulatus — COPE 1862: 524
Elapomorphus reticulatus — STRAUCH 1884: 569
Phalotris reticulatus — FERRAREZZI 1993: 213
Phalotris reticulatus — GIRAUDO & SCROCCHI 2002: 30
Phalotris reticulatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 537
Phalotris reticulatus — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionS Brazil (Minas Gerais, São Paulo)

Type locality: “Brasilien”  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: ZMB 3811 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Phalotris reticulatus can be distinguished from other species of the group by unique combination of the following characters: head dorsally almost totally black, with lighter snout, and a notable white dot on 3rd–4th supralabials (this last character is unique within the P. bilineatus group), and ventrally almost white (vs. black in P. illustrator and P. spegazzinii); white nuchal collar present and reaching ventral scales (2–3 dorsal scales width), followed by a black ring (1–3 scale width) (vs. nuchal collar absent in P. bilineatus, P. illustrator and P. spegazzinii); venter almost totally black, each ventral scale black with thin whitish free posterior border (vs. venter white or with black blotches in all other species); vertebral black stripe can be from very noticeable to almost faded and runs over the vertebral and the inner half of paravertebral dorsal scales. The stripe is formed by irregular dots over each scale and could fade after fixation. On both sides of the vertebral stripe, there is a reddish stripe two dorsal scales wide. The sides of the body, from the reddish stripes to the venter, almost black, where each scale is black with a thin withe posterior border resulting in a reticulated lateral pattern in general view; black in P. spegazzinii and P. illustrator and a narrow lateral black stripe in others species); cloacal black ring present (vs. absent in P. multipunctatus); rostral well separated from the prefrontal (vs. rostral contacting the prefrontal or slightly separated in P. bilineatus). (Scrocchi et al. 2022).

Coloration (Fig. 4C). The head is black, and the coloration extends until to an almost straight line behind the parietals. There is a clear area, with irregular black dots, from the snout to the anterior half of frontal, supraoculars, and first supralabials. There is a noticeable big white spot on the third and fourth supralabials. Ventrally the head is white and presents a sub-triangular to sub-rhombic black spot over the gulars, that extends forward as a line over the chinshields suture. Behind the head, in the dorsum, there is a white nuchal collar of two to three dorsal scales wide; the white collar is posteriorly bordered by a black collar of one to two dorsal scales width, which is formed by the union of the enlarged end of the vertebral stripe, and the color of sides of the body. A vertebral black stripe can be from very noticeable to almost faded and runs over the vertebral and the inner half of paravertebral dorsal scales. The stripe is formed by irregular dots over each scale and could fade after fixation. On both sides of the vertebral stripe, there is a reddish stripe two dorsal scales wide. The sides of the body, from the reddish stripes to the ventral shields, are black, and only the free border of the scales can be clear, forming a reticulated pattern. There is a white line between the first dorsal scale rows and the ventral shields. Ventrally almost black, only a thin whitish border can exist in each ventral shield. Tail ventrally with the same pattern as the belly. Dorsally, in correspondence to the cloacal region, there is a black area of 8–9 dorsal scales wide that extends in a triangular shape over vertebral and paravertebral scales. (Scrocchi et al. 2022).

Variation. The largest specimen was a female 453 mm SVL and 42 mm tail. Tail short, corresponding to 10.9–12.4% of SVL in males, and 8–9.3 % in females. Males with 188–197 (x̅ = 192.00, SD= 4.69, n= 4) ventral scales (188–198 reported for Brazilian populations by Ferrarezzi, 1993a), females 201–207 (x̅ = 205.00, SD= 3.46, n= 3; 202–211 reported by Ferrarezzi, 1993a). Subcaudal scales 30–33 (x̅ = 31.30, SD= 1.26, n= 4) in males (27–33 reported by Ferrarezzi, 1993a), and 23–27 in females (x̅ = 24.67, SD= 2.08, n= 4; 23–27 reported by Ferrarezzi, 1993a). The specimens studied have the typical head scales of the genus. (Scrocchi et al. 2022). 
CommentDistribution: See map in Scorcchi et al. 2002: 51 (Fig. 3). 
References
  • Bressan, Paulo Magalhães; Maria Cecília Martins Kierulff, Angélica Midori Sugieda (eds.) 2009. FAUNA AMEAÇADA DE EXTINÇÃO NO ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO: VERTEBRADOS. São Paulo: Fundação Parque Zoológico de São Paulo: Secretaria do Meio Ambiente, 2009. - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1862. On Elapomorphus, Sympholis, and Coniophanes. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 13 [1861]: 524 - get paper here
  • Ferrarezzi H. 1993. Nota sobre o genero Phalotris com revisao do grupo nasutus e descricao de tres novas especies (Serpentes, Colubridae, Xenodontinae). Mem. Inst. Butantan 55 (SUPPL. 1): 21-38. - get paper here
  • Giraudo, A. R., and G. J. Scrocchi 2002. Argentinian Snakes: An Annotated Checklist. Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv. (132): 1-53 - get paper here
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • MARQUES, O. A. V. et al. 2009. Repteis. In: Bressan et al., FAUNA AMEAÇADA DE EXTINÇÃO NO ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO: VERTEBRADOS. São Paulo: Fundação Parque Zoológico de São Paulo: Secretaria do Meio Ambiente, pp. 285-327 - get paper here
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo, Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins, Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • Peters, Wilhem Carl Hartwig 1860. Drei neue Schlangen des k. zoologischen Museums aus America und Bemerkungen über die generelle Unterscheidung von anderen bereits bekannten Arten. Monatsber. königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin. 1860 (October): 517-521 - get paper here
  • Scrocchi, G. J., Giraudo, A. R., & Nenda, S. J. 2022. Taxonomic notes on the Phalotris bilineatus group (Serpentes: Dipsadidae: Elapomorphini), with the description of a new species from northwestern Argentina. Cuadernos de Herpetología 36 (1): 47-63 - get paper here
  • Strauch,A. 1884. Bemerkungen über die Schlangengattung Elapomorphus aus der Familie der Calamariden. 2nd. Ed. Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersbourg 29: 541-590 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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