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Philodryas chamissonis (WIEGMANN, 1835)

IUCN Red List - Philodryas chamissonis - Data Deficient, DD

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Chilean Green Racer 
SynonymCoronella Chamissonis WIEGMANN 1835: 246
Psammophis temminckii SCHLEGEL 1837: 218
Taeniophis tantillus GIRARD 1854: 227
Dromicus Temminckii — DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 663
Dromicus chamissonis — STEINDACHNER 1867: 65
Dromicus chamissonis — BOULENGER 1894: 119
Liophis luctuosa PHILIPPI 1899: 723
Dromicus chamissonis — DONOSO-BARROS 1966: 415
? Philodryas chamissonis eremicola DONOSO-BARROS 1975: 218
Philodryas chamissona — TIPTON 2005 (in error)
Philodryas chamissonis — GRAZZIOTIN et al. 2012
Philodryas chamissonis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 550
Philodryas chamissonis — MELO-SAMPAIO et al. 2020 

Type locality: Tollo, Chile  
TypesHolotype: ZMB, a 762 mm specimen (F.J.F. Meyen, 1830-1832), missing fide R. Günther in litt.
Holotype: USNM 5515 [Taeniophis tantillus] 
CommentSyntype: ANSP 5578; Chili, neighborhood of Santiago [Taeniophis tantillus]

Habitat: fully arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018). 
EtymologyNamed after naturalist and poet Adelbert von Chamisso. 
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1894. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume II., Containing the Conclusion of the Colubridæ Aglyphæ. British Mus. (Nat. Hist.), London, xi, 382 pp. - get paper here
  • Cabeza O, Vargas E, Ibarra C, Urra F 2019. Observations on reproduction in captivity of the endemic long-tailed snake Philodryas chamissonis (Wiegmann, 1835) (Reptilia, Squamata, Dipsadidae) from Chile. Herpetozoa 32: 203-209 - get paper here
  • Cañas, J & Urra, F A; 2019. Philodryas chamissonis (Chilean Green Racer) Nocturnal activity. Herpetological Review 50 (3): 600 - get paper here
  • Castro-Pastene, Carlos; Héctor Carrasco & Jaime Troncoso-Palacios. 2015. Lagartijas y serpientes del Parque Nacional Radal Siete Tazas. Boletín Chileno de Herpetología 2: 12-16 - get paper here
  • Demangel, Diego 2016. Reptiles en Chile. Fauna Nativa Ediciones, Santiago, 619 pp - get paper here
  • Demangel, Diego 2016. Guía de Campo - Reptiles del centro sure de Chile. Corporación Chilena de la Madera, Concepción, Chile 187 pp. - get paper here
  • Donoso-Barros, R. 1966. Reptiles de Chile. Santiago: Univ. Chile, 458 + cxlvi pp.
  • Donoso-Barros,R. 1975. Nuevos reptiles y anfibios de Chile. Bol. Soc. Biol. Concepcion 48 [1974]: 217-229
  • Duméril, A.M.C., and G. Bibron. 1835. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles, Vol. 2. Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Paris, iv + 680 p. - get paper here
  • Girard, C. 1855. Abstract of a report to Lieut. James M. Gilliss, U.S.N., upon the reptiles collected during the U.S.N. Astronomical Expedition to Chili. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 7 [1854]: 226-227. - get paper here
  • Grazziotin, Felipe G.; Hussam Zaher, Robert W. Murphy, Gustavo Scrocchi, Marco A. Benavides, Ya-Ping Zhang and Sandro L. Bonatto 2012. Molecular phylogeny of the New World Dipsadidae (Serpentes: Colubroidea): a reappraisal. Cladistics DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2012.00393.x - get paper here
  • GREENE HW & FM JAKSIC 1992. The feeding behavior and natural history of two Chilean snakes, Philodryas chamissonis and Tachymenis chilensis (Colubridae). Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 65: 485-493.
  • Grehan, John 2001. Biogeography and evolution of the Galapagos: integration of the biological and geological evidence. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 74: 267–287 - get paper here
  • Gutsche, A. 2016. Arend Friedrich August Wiegmann (1802–1841) und sein Beitrag zur Herpetologie der Neotropis am Zoologischen Museum Berlin. Mertensiella 23: 156–169
  • HABIT EM, JC ORTIZ & P VICTORIANO 1992. Osteología craneana de Philodryas chamissonis (Wiegmann, 1834) (Colubridae, Serpentes). Boletín de la Sociedad de Biología de Concepción (Chile) 63: 83-92
  • Harrington, Sean M; Jordyn M de Haan, Lindsey Shapiro, Sara Ruane 2018. Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (1): 61–71 - get paper here
  • Hohmeister, A. 1999. Bemerkungen zur Biologie und Pflege südamerikanischer Strauchnattern der Gattung Philodryas Wagler, 1830 im Terrarium. Sauria 21 (2): 9-21 - get paper here
  • KUCH, U. 1999. Notes on two cases of human envenomation by the South American colubrid snakes Philodryas olfersi latirostris COPE, 1862 and Philodryas chamissonis (WIEGMANN, 1834). Herpetozoa 12 (1-2): 11-16 - get paper here
  • Melo-Sampaio, P. R., Passos, P., Martins, A. R., Moura-leite, J. C., Morato, S. A., Venegas, P. J., Chávez G., Venâncio N.M. & De Souza, M. B. 2020. A phantom on the trees: integrative taxonomy supports a reappraisal of rear-fanged snakes classification (Dipsadidae: Philodryadini). Zoologischer Anzeiger 290: 19-39 [dated 2021 in print version, but 2020 published online] - get paper here
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Philippi, R.A. 1899. Descripciones breves de dos especies nuevas de sapo (Bufo). Anales Universidad de Chile 104: 723-725
  • Reyes-Olivares, C., Sepulvedaluna, E. & Labra, A. 2017. Philodryas chamissonis (Chilean Green Racer) Diet. Herpetological Review 48 (4): 865-866 - get paper here
  • Schlegel, H. 1837. Essai sur la physionomie des serpens. Partie Descriptive. La Haye (J. Kips, J. HZ. et W. P. van Stockum), 606 S. + xvi - get paper here
  • Schmidt, Karl P. & Walker, Warren F. 1943. Peruvian snakes from the University of Arequipa. Zoological Series of Field Museum of Zoology 24 (26): 279-296 - get paper here
  • Steindachner, F. 1867. In: Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte Novara um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858,1859 unter den Befehlen des Commodore B. von Wüllerstorf-Urbair (Zoologie), Vol. 1, part 3 (Reptilien p.1-98). K. Gerold's Sohn/Kaiserlich-Königl. Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, Wien [1869 on title page] - get paper here
  • Tipton, Bob L. 2005. Snakes of the Americas: Checklist and Lexicon. Krieger Publishing Company, Melbourne, Florida [review in Sauria 29 (1): 10]
  • Troncoso-Palacios, Jaime 2014. Nueva lista actualizada de los reptiles terrestres de la Región de Atacama, Chile. Boletín Chileno de Herpetología 1: 1-4 - get paper here
  • Urra FA, Pulgar R, Gutiérrez R, Hodar C, Cambiazo V, Labra A. 2015. Identification and molecular characterization of five putative toxins from the venom gland of the snake Philodryas chamissonis (Serpentes: Dipsadidae). Toxicon 108:19-31 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wiegmann, A. F. A. 1834. In: Dr. F. J. F. Meyen: Beiträge zur Zoologie gesammelt auf einer Reise um die Erde. Siebente Abhandlung. Amphibien. Nova Acta Physico-Medica Academia Caesarea Leopoldino-Carolina (Halle) 17: 185-268 [1835] - get paper here
  • ZAHER, HUSSAM; JUAN C. ARREDONDO, JORGE H. VALENCIA, ERNESTO ARBELÁEZ, MIGUEL T. RODRIGUES & MARCO ALTAMIRANO-BENAVIDES 2014. A new Andean species of Philodryas (Dipsadidae, Xenodontinae) from Ecuador. Zootaxa 3785 (3): 469–480 - get paper here
  • Zañartu, Nicolas; Felix Urra 2020. Death-feigning behaviour (thanatosis) in Chilean green racer, Philodryas chamissonis (Wiegmann, 1835) (Serpentes: Dipsadidae). Herpetology Notes 13: 731-732 - get paper here
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