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Philothamnus girardi BOCAGE, 1893

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Girard's Green Snake, Annobon Wood Snake 
SynonymPhilothamnus girardi BOCAGE 1893
Philothamnus girardi — BOULENGER 1894: 102
Philothamnus girardi — GÜNTHER 1895: 528
Philothamnus girardi — STERNFELD 1917
Philothamnus semivariegatus girardi — MERTENS 1934
Philothamnus semivariegatus girardi — LOVERIDGE 1958
Philothamnus girardi — TRAPE & ROUX-ESTÈVE 1995: 39
Philothamnus girardi — JESUS et al. 2009
Philothamnus girardi — WALLACH et al. 2014: 555 
DistributionAnnobon Island (Equatorial Guinea, Gulf of Guinea), Congo (Brazzaville) ?

Type locality: “Anno Bom Island, Guinea” = Annobon = Pagalu (Equatorial Guinea, Gulf of Guinea)  
TypesLectotype: BMNH 1946.1.6.3, female 
CommentPossibly occur in the Congo (TRAPE & ROUX-ESTÈVE 1995: 39)

Synonymy: P. girardi may be a synonym of P. dorsalis. None of the species-delimitation methods used by Engelbrecht et al. 2018 supported the distinction of P. girardi and P. dorsalis from each other. However, to confidently synonymise P. dorsalis and P. girardi will require improved geographical coverage for P. girardi, including material either close to the type localities for both species, or at a minimum material that is clearly within their currently known distributions. Furthermore, a revised morphological description that incorporates the variability within both of these taxa would be required.

Habitat: fully arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018). 
EtymologyNamed after Albert Girard (1860-1914), a zoologist of the museum of zoology of Lisbon (Rémi Ksas, pers. comm.). 
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • BLANC, C.P. & T. FRETEY. 2002. Analyse Zoogegraphique du peuplement reptilien de L’Afrique Centrale et de L’Angola. Biogeographica 78: 49-75
  • Bocage, J.V.B. de 1893. Mammiferos, Aves e Reptis de Ilha de Anno-Bom. J. Sci. Lisboa (2) III: 45-46
  • Boulenger, George A. 1894. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume II., Containing the Conclusion of the Colubridæ Aglyphæ. British Mus. (Nat. Hist.), London, xi, 382 pp. - get paper here
  • Engelbrecht, H.M., Branch, W.R., Greenbaum, E., Alexander, G.J., Jackson, K., Burger, M., Conradie, W., Kusamba, C., Zassi-Boulou, A-G., Tolley, K.A. 2018. Diversifying into the branches: species boundaries in African green and bush snakes, Philothamnus (Serpentes: Colubridae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 130: 357-365 - get paper here
  • Günther, A. 1895. Notice of Reptiles and Batrachians collected in the eastern half of tropical Africa. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 15: 523-529. - get paper here
  • Harrington, Sean M; Jordyn M de Haan, Lindsey Shapiro, Sara Ruane 2018. Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (1): 61–71 - get paper here
  • Hughes, B. 1985. Progress on a taxonomic revision of African green tree snakes (Philothamnus spp.). In: Schuchmann, K.L. (ed.) Proceedings of the International Symposium on African Vertebrates. ZFMK, Bonn, pp. 511-530
  • Jesus, J.; Nagy, Z.; Branch, W.; Wink, M.; Brehm, A. & Harris, D. J. 2009. Phylogenetic relationships of African green snakes (genera Philothamnus and Hapsidophrys) from São Tomé, Príncipe and Annobon islands based on mtDNA sequences and comments on their colonization and taxonomy. The Herpetological Journal 19: 41-48 - get paper here
  • Loveridge,A. 1958. Revision of five african snake genera. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 119: 1-198 (141) - get paper here
  • Mertens, R. 1934. Die Inseln-Reptilien, ihre Ausbreitung Variation und Artbildung. Zoologica (Stuttgart) 32: 1-209.
  • Sternfeld, R. 1917. Reptilia und Amphibia. In: Schubotz, H. (Hrsg.): Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Zweiten Deutschen Zentral-Afrika-Expedition, 1910-1911 unter Führung Adolph Friedrichs, Herzog zu Mecklenburg. Leipzig: Klinkhardt & Biermann, [Band] 1, Zoologie, Lieferung 11; S. 407-510. - get paper here
  • Trape, J.F. & R. ROUX-ESTÈVE 1990. Note sur une collection de serpents du Congo avec description d'une espèce nouvelle. Rev. Zool. Afr. (J. Afr. Zool.) 104: 375-383
  • Trape, J.F. & R. ROUX-ESTÈVE 1995. Les serpents du Congo: liste commentée et clé de détermination. Journal of African Zoology 109 (1): 31-50
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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