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Pholidoscelis polops (COPE, 1862)

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Higher TaxaTeiidae, Teiinae, Gymnophthalmoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Pholidoscelis polops (Cope, St. Croix Ameiva 
SynonymAmeiva polops COPE 1862: 66
Ameiva Örstedii REINHARDT & LÜTKEN 1863
Ameiva polops — BOULENGER 1885: 350
Ameiva polops — GRANT 1937: 510
Ameiva polops — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 200
Ameiva polops — HARVEY et al. 2012
Pholidoscelis polops — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016
Ameiva polops — ANGELI et al. 2018 
DistributionPuerto Rico Bank: US Vigin Islands, St. Croix

Type locality: St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands.  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: USNM 30695; syntypes: ZMUC R.4355-4356. Other specimens exist in the University of Puerto Rico, Biology Museum, Rio Piedras Campus, (UPRRP 3675-3677-3679) and at the University of Michigan, Museum of Zoology (UMMZ 88236, 80603-04) in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Syntypes: ZMB, ZMUC [Örstedii] 
DiagnosisDESCRIPTION: Size small (SVL in males to 64 mm, in females to 69 mm); dorsal caudal scales smooth and straight; ventral scales 10-12 (mode 10) in a transverse row and 32-34 in a longitudinal row; fourth toe subdigital scales 68-77 (combined counts for both fourth toes); femoral pores 33-39 (combined counts for both series); fifteenth caudal verticil with 22-25 scales. Dorsum tan, brown, or olive, darker (brown) on neck and head, and margined with yellowish on neck and sides; head with cream to yellow lateral markings; sides black dorsally with 2 longitudinal light stripes: (1) narrow, dorsalmost area from top of auricular opening to sacral region, reddish to cream or yellow (anteriorly), and (2) colored ventralmost area wider, from ventral side of auricular opening to anterior femoral surface, white to faintly greenish; between stripes and below ventralmost area, sides rich reddish brown; lateralmost 2 enlarged ventral rows blue, midventer white to grayish: chin, throat, and pectoral region orange; tail gray above with black markings; lateral caudal stripe from posterior face of hindlimb to near tail end bordered above by white, below by black; tail underside buff or white to faintly orange (anteriorly), greenish distally in some individuals; pupil reniform, iris gray-brown (Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 200). 
CommentIllustrations: Cope, 1895 (as A. leucomelas); Grant, 1937; Heatwole and Torres, 1967; Philibosian and Yntema, 1977; MacLean, 1982. 
References
  • Angeli NF. 2012. Ameiva polops (Saint Croix Ameiva). Conservation. Caribbean Herpetology 45: 1 - get paper here
  • Angeli, N. F., Lundgren, I. F., Pollock, C. G., Hillis-Starr, Z. M. and Fitzgerald, L. A. 2018. Dispersal and population state of an endangered island lizard following a conservation translocation. Ecol Appl. doi:10.1002/eap.1650 - get paper here
  • Barbour, Thomas 1930. Some faunistic changes in the Lesser Antilles. Proc. New England Zool. Club 11: 73-85
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1862. Synopsis of the species of Holcosus and Ameiva, with diagnoses of new West Indian and South American Colubridae. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 14: 60-82. - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1895. The Batrachia and Reptilia of the University of Pennsylvania West Indian expedition of 1890 and 1891. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 46 [1894]: 429-442 - get paper here
  • Dodd, C. K., Jr. 1980. Ameiva polops. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (240. - get paper here
  • Dodd, C. Kenneth, Jr. 1979. A bibliography of endangered and threatened amphibians and reptiles in the United States and its territories (conservation, distribution, natural history, status). Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv. (46): 1-35 - get paper here
  • Goicoechea, N., Frost, D. R., De la Riva, I., Pellegrino, K. C. M., Sites, J., Rodrigues, M. T. and Padial, J. M. 2016. Molecular systematics of teioid lizards (Teioidea/Gymnophthalmoidea: Squamata) based on the analysis of 48 loci under tree-alignment and similarity-alignment. Cladistics, doi: 10.1111/cla.12150 - get paper here
  • Grant, C. 1937. Herpetological notes with new species from the American and British Virgin Islands, 1936. J. Dept. Agric. Puerto Rico 21: 503-522.
  • Heatwole, H.,and Torres, F. 1967. Distribution and geographic variation of the Ameivas of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Stud. Fauna Curaçao and Carib. Is. 24(92):63-1 11. - get paper here
  • HURTADO, LUIS A.; CARLOS A. SANTAMARIA & LEE A. FITZGERALD 2014. The phylogenetic position of the Critically Endangered Saint Croix ground lizard Ameiva polops: revisiting molecular systematics of West Indian Ameiva. Zootaxa 3794 (2): 254–262 - get paper here
  • MacLean, W.P. 1982. Reptiles and amphibians of the Virgin Islands. MacMillan Caribbean, London: vii + 54 pp.
  • Philibosian, R. & R. Ruibal 1971. Conservation of the Lizard Ameiva polops in the Virgin Islands Herpetologica 27 (4): 450-454. - get paper here
  • Philibosian, R. and Yntema, J.A. 1977. Annotated checklist of the birds, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians of the Virgin Islands & Puerto Rico. Information Services, Frederiksted, St. Croix, 48 pp.
  • Philibosian, R.; Yntema, J. A. 1976. Records and status of some reptiles and amphibians in the Virgin Islands. I. 1968-1975. Herpetologica 32 (1): 81-85 - get paper here
  • Philibosian, R.; Yntema, J. A. 1978. Records and status of some reptiles and amphibians in the Virgin Islands. II. 1975-1976. Herpetologica 34 (1): 47-51 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
 
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