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Pholidoscelis taeniurus (COPE, 1862)

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Higher TaxaTeiidae, Teiinae, Gymnophthalmoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesPholidoscelis taeniurus taeniurus COPE 1862
Pholidoscelis taeniurus aequorea SCHWARTZ 1967
Pholidoscelis taeniurus azuae SCHWARTZ 1967
Pholidoscelis taeniurus barbouri COCHRAN 1928
Pholidoscelis taeniurus ignobilis SCHWARTZ 1967
Pholidoscelis taeniurus meyerabichi MERTENS 1950
Pholidoscelis taeniurus navassae SCHMIDT 1919
Pholidoscelis taeniurus pentamerinthus SCHWARTZ 1968
Pholidoscelis taeniurus regnatrix SCHWARTZ 1967
Pholidoscelis taeniurus rosamondae COCHRAN 1934
Pholidoscelis taeniurus tofacea SCHWARTZ 1967
Pholidoscelis taeniurus vafra SCHWARTZ 1967
Pholidoscelis taeniurus varica SCHWARTZ 1967
Pholidoscelis taeniurus vulcanalis SCHWARTZ 1967 
Common NamesE: Hispaniolan Blue-tailed Groundlizard, Hispaniolan blue-tailed ameiva, Haitian Ameiva 
SynonymAmeiva taeniura COPE 1862: 63
Ameiva taeniura — BOULENGER 1885: 350
Ameiva taeniura — SCHMIDT 1921: 17
Ameiva taeniura — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 201
Ameiva taeniura — HOWER & HEDGES 2003
Ameiva taeniura — HARVEY et al. 2012
Pholidoscelis taeniura — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016
Pholidoscelis taeniurus — TUCKER et al. 2016

Pholidoscelis taeniurus aequorea (SCHWARTZ 1967)
Ameiva taeniura aequorea — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988
Pholidoscelis taeniura aequorea — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016 (by implication)

Pholidoscelis taeniurus azuae (SCHWARTZ 1967)
Ameiva taeniura azuae — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988
Pholidoscelis taeniura azuae — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016 (by implication)

Pholidoscelis taeniurus barbouri (COCHRAN 1928)
Ameiva barbouri COCHRAN 1928
Ameiva barbouri — BARBOUR & LOVERIDGE 1946
Ameiva taeniura barbouri — SCHWARTZ 1967
Ameiva taeniura barbouri — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988
Pholidoscelis taeniura barbouri — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016 (by implication)

Pholidoscelis taeniurus ignobilis (SCHWARTZ 1967)
Ameiva taeniura ignobilis — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988
Pholidoscelis taeniura ignobilis — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016 (by implication)

Pholidoscelis taeniurus meyerabichi (MERTENS 1950)
Ameiva taeniura meyerabichi MERTENS 1950
Ameiva taeniura algida SCHWARTZ 1967
Ameiva taeniura meyerabichi — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988
Pholidoscelis taeniura meyerabichi — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016 (by implication)

Pholidoscelis taeniurus navassae (SCHMIDT 1919)
Ameiiva navassae SCHMIDT 1919
Ameiva taeniura navassae — SCHWARTZ 1967: 354
Ameiva taeniura navassae — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988
Pholidoscelis taeniura navassae — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016 (by implication)

Pholidoscelis taeniurus pentamerinthus (SCHWARTZ 1968)
Ameiva taeniura pentamerinthus SCHWARTZ 1968
Ameiva taeniura pentamerinthus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988
Pholidoscelis taeniura pentamerinthus — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016 (by implication)

Pholidoscelis taeniurus regnatrix (SCHWARTZ 1967)
Ameiva taeniura regnatrix SCHWARTZ 1967
Ameiva taeniura regnatrix — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988
Pholidoscelis taeniura regnatrix — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016 (by implication)

Pholidoscelis taeniurus rosamondae (COCHRAN 1934)
Ameiva rosamondae COCHRAN 1934: 179
Ameiva rosamondae — BARBOUR & LOVERIDGE 1946
Ameiva taeniura rosamondae — SCHWARTZ 1967
Ameiva taeniura rosamondae — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988
Pholidoscelis taeniura rosamondae — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016 (by implication)

Pholidoscelis taeniurus tofacea (SCHWARTZ 1967)
Ameiva taeniura tofacea SCHWARTZ 1967
Ameiva taeniura tofacea — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988
Pholidoscelis taeniura tofacea — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016 (by implication)

Pholidoscelis taeniurus vafra (SCHWARTZ 1967)
Ameiua taeniura vafra SCHWARTZ 1967
Ameiva taeniura vafra — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988
Pholidoscelis taeniura vafra — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016 (by implication)

Pholidoscelis taeniurus varica (SCHWARTZ 1967)
Ameiua taeniura varica SCHWARTZ 1967
Ameiva taeniura varica — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988
Pholidoscelis taeniura varica — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016 (by implication)

Pholidoscelis taeniurus vulcanalis (SCHWARTZ 1967)
Ameiva taeniura vulcanalis SCHWARTZ 1967
Ameiva taeniura vulcanalis — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988
Pholidoscelis taeniura vulcanalis — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016 (by implication) 
DistributionHispaniola: Haiti

taeniura: Haiti, northern and western Tiburon Peninsula; Grosse Caye; specimens from lie Petite Cayemite tentatively referred to this subspecies. Type locality: Near Jérémie, Département de la Grand'Anse, Haiti.

aequorea: Ile-a-Vache. Type locality: Western end, lIe-a-Vache, Haiti.

azuae: República Dominicana, western Llanos de Azua.Type locality: 22 km NW Azua, Azua Province, Republica Dominicana.

barbouri: lie de la Gonave; Haiti, vicinity of Trou Forban. Type locality: La Source, lIe de la Gonave, Haiti.

ignobilis: Repiiblica Dominicana, from Martin Garcia and La Vega east through Peninsula de Samaná; Puerto Plata? Type locality: 14.4 km E La Vega, La Vega Province, Republica Dominicana.

meyerabichi: República Dominicana, Cordillera Central. Type locality: Constanza, about 1200 meters, Cordillera Central, La Vega Province, Republica Dominicana.

navassae: Navassa I. Type locality: Navassa Island.

pentamerinthus: Ile Grande Cayemite. Type locality: Vicinity of Pointe Sable, Ile Grande Cayemite, Departement de la Grand'Anse, Haiti.

regnatrix: Haiti, extreme southwestern Tiburon Peninsula. Type locality: Camp Perrin, Departement du Sud, Haiti.

rosamondae: Isla Saona. Type locality: Isla Saona, Republica Dominicana.

tofacea: República Dominicana, southeastern coastal region from near Rio Ozama to Rio Chavón; perhaps also in interior of this region. Type locality: Mouth of Rio Chavon, west side, La Romana Province, Republica Dominicana.

vafra: extreme eastern República Dominicana. Type locality: 0.5 mi. (0.8 km) NW Boca de Yuma, La Altagracia Province, Republica Dominicana.

varica: Haiti, basal portion of the Tiburon Peninsula, including uplands of Massif de la Selle. Type locality: Morne Calvaire, 1 mi. (1.6 km) SW Petionville, 2300 ft. (701 meters), Departement de l'Ouest, Haiti.

vulcanalis: Extreme southeastern Haiti, across Dominican Peninsula de Barahona, along its east coast and north to Barahona, thence west to easternmost portion of Massif de la Selle; also east from Barahona to Punta Martin Garcia. Type locality: 5 mi. (8 km) NE Oviedo, Pedernales Province, Republica Dominicana.

INCERTAE SEDIS: Haiti (near Plaisance, Dondon, Limbd, St.-Michel de l'Atalaye, Terre Rouge, Mirebalais, Saut d'Eau, Seguin); República Dominicana (Loma de Cabrera, Vallejuelo, Cambita Garabitos, Jayaco, Bonao, Isla Catalina, Villa Anacaona, "Santo Domingo").  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: Unknown; not MCZ 3614
Holotype: MCZ 81082 [algida]
Holotype: MCZ 81086 [aequorea]
Holotype: MCZ 81082 [algida]
Holotype: MCZ 81078 [azuae]
Holotype: MCZ 25537 [barbouri]
Holotype: MCZ 81081 [ignobilis]
Holotype: SMF 26542 [meyerabichi]
Holotype: AMNH 12607 [navassae]
Holotype: MCZ 92047 [pentamerinthus]
Holotype: MCZ 81072 [regnatrix]
Holotype: MCZ 37567[rosamondae]
Holotype: MCZ 81079 [tofacea]
Holotype: MCZ 81080 [vafra]
Holotype: MCZ 81076 [varica]
Holotype: MCZ 81077 [vulcanalis] 
DiagnosisDESCRIPTION: Size moderate (SVL in males to 102 mm, in females to 103 mm); dorsal caudal scales keeled and oblique; ventral scales 8-10 (strongly modally 10) in a transverse row and 28-35 in a longitudinal row; fourth toe subdigital scales 61-91 (combined counts for both fourth toes); femoral pores 24-41 (combined counts for both series); fifteenth caudal verticil with 18-31 scales. Dorsal pattern consisting of: (1) a series of 5 (median at times obsolescent, giviQg the appearance of 4) yellow to tan longitudinal lines on a dark (pale to medium brown, reddish brown) ground, (2) a median dorsal metallic tan, gray, sandy, greenish tan, nonmetallic tan, brown, reddish brown longitudinal zone, either bordered directly by black lateral fields or by bright green or greenish yellow dorsolateral lines, and with conspicuous yellow dots in males (by subspecies); or (3) a combination of those patterns; lateral fields black, from temporal regions to basal two-thirds of tail, with some buffy, red, golden, or brick flecks or dots at times present (by subspecies); lateral fields bordered ventrally by a pale lateral line from upper edge of auricular opening onto basal one-quarter of tail, represented anterior to auricular opening by 1-2 pale dots or dashes on cheek between eye and auricular opening; snout orangish to pinkish; tail blue to blue-green, often somewhat metallic, at times with a black middorsal stripe or zone; tail at times unpatterned (by subspecies); throat black, orange, fire orange, or yellow (by subspecies); venter blue-gray (Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 201).

Diagnosis (pentamerinthus). A subspecies of A. taeniura characterized by a com bination of moderate size (males to 85 mm, females to 75 mm snout-vent length), 8 or 10 transverse rows of ventrals (no mode), very high number of fourth toe subdigital scales, moderate number of femoral nores, and moderate number of scales in the fifteenth caudal verticil; dorsal pattern consisting of five yellow longitudinal lines on a black to slighty brownish-black ground, black lateral fields without included pale dots or markings; throat orange (Schwartz 1968).

Variation (pentamerinthus). The series of 18 A. t. pentamerinthus has the following counts: longitudinal ventrals 30-34 (mean 32.3); rows of transverse ventrals 8 or 10 (50.0 per cent in each case); fourth toe scales 76-91 (mean 81.3); femoral pores 27-34 (mean 30.7); fifteenth verticil 23-29 (mean 25.4) (Schwartz 1968).

Comparisons (pentamerinthus). The subspecies closest geographically to A. t. pentamerinthus is A. t. taeniura which occurs on the adjacent Haitian shores; although there are no specimens as yet from the coast im mediately adjacent to Grande Cayemite, A. t. taeniura occurs both to the east (Baraderes; Petit Trou de Nippes) and west (Jeremie; Roseaux). A. t. pentamerinthus can be easily separated from nomi nate taeniura by dorsal pattern; the five (including the lines which border the lateral fields above) dorsal lines in pentamerinthus are represented in taeniura by a gray-brown to brown middorsal zone (encompassing the area occupied by the three dorsal lines in pentamerinthus) bordered laterally by the chromatic remnants of the two dorsolateral lines of pentamerinthus. The throats of A. t. taeniura are bright orange, whereas those of pentamerinthus are less bright. In essence, pentamerinthus is dorsally a longitudinally striped or lined lizard, whereas taeniura has a middorsal zone, bordered laterally by one or two pairs (depending on the amount of fusion) or dorsolateral lines. Both subspecies are about the same size (male taeniura to 88 mm, male pentamerinthus to 85 mm). A. t. taeniura modally has 10 transverse rows of ventrals, whereas pentamerinthus has the series equally divided between 8 and 10 rows. Fourth toe subdigital scales are more numerous in pentamerin thus (mean 81.3) than in taeniura (mean 73.2). In fact, of all the subspecies of A. taeniura only azuae from the Republica Dominicana, far to the east, has a slightly higher mean (82.0) than does pentamerinthus; azuae is known from only two specimens. A. t. pentamerinthus may be differentiated from the subspecies azuae, ignobilis, and algida in that these subspecies have the throat black rather than orange. In general dorsal aspect, pentamerinthus resembles the other subspecies associated with the Tiburon Penin sula of Hispaniola; these races {taeniura, regnatrix, aequorea, varica) all are basically lined dorsally. None of them, however, has the dorsum as distinctly lined as does pentamerinthus. Of these sub species, regnatrix is completely separable from pentamerinthus in number of fourth toe scales (61-74 in regnatrix, 76-91 in pentamerin thus). Although there is some overlap in counts, fourth toe scales of all other Tiburon subspecies are lower than those of pentamerin thus; aequorea from Ile à Vache most closely approach pentamerinthus with a mean of 76.6 and a range of 65 to 83. Of the Tiburon subspecies, pentamennthus is larger than aequorea, about the same size as taeniura and regnatrix, and smaller than varica. A. t. pentamennthus differs from the other orange-throated subspecies {barbouri, vulcanalis, tojacea, vafra, and rosamondae) in having a lined rather than a zonate dorsum, and in striking differences in coloration and details of pattern (Schwartz 1968). 
CommentIllustrations: Mertens, 1939; Cochran, 1941; Mertens, 1950.

Subspecies:  HARVEY et al. 2012 do not list any subspecies of this species. 
References
  • Barbour, Thomas & Loveridge, Arthur 1946. First supplement to typical reptiles and amphibians. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 96 (2): 59-214. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Cochran, D. M. 1928. The herpetological collections made in Haiti and its adjoining islands by Walter J. Eyerdam. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 41: 53-59. - get paper here
  • Cochran, D. M. 1934. Herpetological collections made in Hispaniola by the Utowana Expedition. Occ. Pap. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 8: 163-188 - get paper here
  • Cochran, D.M. 1941. The herpetology of Hispaniola. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 177: vii + 398 pp. - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1862. Synopsis of the species of Holcosus and Ameiva, with diagnoses of new West Indian and South American Colubridae. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 14: 60-82. - get paper here
  • Geißler, L. 2008. Herpetologische Beobachtungen auf der Halbinsel Barahona, Dominikanische Republik. Elaphe 16 (1): 48-52
  • Goicoechea, N., Frost, D. R., De la Riva, I., Pellegrino, K. C. M., Sites, J., Rodrigues, M. T. and Padial, J. M. 2016. Molecular systematics of teioid lizards (Teioidea/Gymnophthalmoidea: Squamata) based on the analysis of 48 loci under tree-alignment and similarity-alignment. Cladistics, doi: 10.1111/cla.12150 - get paper here
  • HARVEY, MICHAEL B.; GABRIEL N. UGUETO & RONALD L. GUTBERLET, Jr. 2012. Review of Teiid Morphology with a Revised Taxonomy and Phylogeny of the Teiidae (Lepidosauria: Squamata). Zootaxa 3459: 1–156 - get paper here
  • Hedges SB. 2010. Ameiva taeniura (Hispaniolan Blue-tailed Ameiva). Distribution. Caribbean Herpetology 6: 1 - get paper here
  • Hower, Lindsey M., and S. Blair Hedges 2003. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of West Indian Teiid lizards of the genus Ameiva. Carib. J. Sci. 39 (3):298-306. - get paper here
  • Mertens, R. 1939. Herpetologische Ergebnisse einer Reise nach der Insel Hispaniola, Westindien. Abh. senckenb. naturf. Ges. (Frankfurt) 449: 1-84.
  • Mertens, R. 1950. Zur Taxonomie und Verbreitung der hispaniolischen Eidechsen der Gattung Ameiva. Senckenbergiana 31 (1-2):3-7.
  • Schmidt, K. P. 1919. Descriptions of new amphibians and reptiles from Santo Domingo and Navassa. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 41:519-525. - get paper here
  • Schmidt, K. P. 1921. Notes on the herpetology of Santo Domingo. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 44: 7-20. - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. 1967. The Ameiva (Lacertilia: Teiidae) of Hispaniola. III. Ameiva taeniura Cope. Bull. Mus. comp. Zool. Harvard 135: 345-375 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Schwartz, Albert 1968. Two new subspecies of Ameiva (Lacertilia, Teiidae) from Hispaniola. Herpetologica 24 (1): 21-28 - get paper here
  • Tucker, Derek B.; Guarino R. Colli, Lilian G. Giugliano, S. Blair Hedges, Catriona R. Hendry, Emily Moriarty Lemmon, Alan R. Lemmon, Jack W. Sites Jr., R. Alexander Pyron 2016. Methodological congruence in phylogenomic analyses with morphological support for teiid lizards (Sauria: Teiidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 103: 75-84 - get paper here
 
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