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Phrynocephalus frontalis STRAUCH, 1876

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Higher TaxaAgamidae (Agaminae), Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Shansi Toadhead Agama
G: Shansi-Krötenkopfagame 
SynonymPhrynocephalus frontalis STRAUCH 1876: 15
Phrynocephalus frontalis — BOULENGER 1885: 375
Phrynocephalus frontalis — BEDRIAGA 1909: 404
Phrynocephalus frontalis — NIKOLSKY 1915: 217
Phrynocephalus frontalis — POPE 1935: 470
Phrynocephalus frontalis — WERMUTH 1967: 78
Phrynocephalus frontalis — WANG et al. 2003
Phrynocephalus frontalis — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008
Phrynocephalus frontalis — LIAN et al. 2012
Phrynocephalus frontalis — MILTO & BARABANOV 2012
Phrynocephalus frontalis — ZENG et al. 2016 
DistributionChina (Gansu, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Nei Mongol, Hebei)

Type locality: in provicia Chinensi, Ordos dicta (= Ordos desert, fide POPE 1935)  
TypesHolotype: ZISP 3920 
CommentSynonymy: BARABANOV & ANANJEVA 2007 list this species as synonym of Phrynocephalus przewalskii.

Distribution: Wang & Fu (2004) suggested to apply the name P. versicolor only to the populations in the northwestern part of its distribution area. Populations from Tengger Desert, Ordos highland, and further east include P. frontalis, P. przewalskii, and P. versicolor and should be called P. przewalskii. Some populations may contain a new species that remains to be described. Guo & Wang (2007) suggested that the Lanzhou population of P. frontalis is part of P. przewalskii.

Relationships: P. frontalis is closely related to P. przewalskii. 
  • BARABANOV, A.V. & N.B. ANANJEVA 2007. Catalogue of the available scientific species-group names for lizards of the genus Phrynocephalus Kaup, 1825 (Reptilia, Sauria, Agamidae). Zootaxa 1399: 1-56 - get paper here
  • Bedriaga, J.V. 1909. Amphibien und Reptilien. In: Wissenschaftliche Resultate der Reisen N.M. Przewalskijs durch Zentralasien. Zoologische Teil. Band 3. Part 1. Lacertilia. (in Russian). Sankt-Petersburg, Vol 3 (1) 3: 73-102, 367
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. Geckonidae, Eublepharidae, Uroplatidae, Pygopodidae, Agamidae. London: 450 pp. - get paper here
  • JI, Shengnan; Xue LIAN, Zhigang JIANG, Lili LI, Junhuai BI, and Chunwang LI 2017. Effects of Sand Grain Size on Habitat Selection in Steppe Toad-headed Lizard (Phrynocephalus frontalis). Asian Herpetological Research 8 (2): 123-130; DOI:10.16373/j.cnki.ahr.160014 - get paper here
  • JI, Shengnan; Xue LIAN; Zhigang JIANG; ; Lili LI; Junhuai BI; and Chunwang LI; ; 2019. Effects of Sand Grain Size on Habitat Selection in Steppe Toad-headed Lizard (Phrynocephalus frontalis). Asian Herpetological Research 10 (4): 123-130 - get paper here
  • Jin, Yuanting; Yubin Wo, Haojie Tong, Sen Song, Lixun Zhang and Richard P. Brown 2018. Evolutionary analysis of mitochondrially encoded proteins of toad-headed lizards, Phrynocephalus, along an altitudinal gradient. BMC Genomics (2018) 19:185 - get paper here
  • LIAN, Xue; Zhigang JIANG, Xiaoge PING, Songhua TANG, Junhuai BI and Chunwang LI 2012. Spatial Distribution Pattern of the Steppe Toad-headed Lizard (Phrynocephalus frontalis) and Its Influencing Factors. Asian Herpetological Research 3 (1): - get paper here
  • Milto, Konstantin D.; Andrei V. Barabanov 2012. A Catalogue of the Agamid and Chamaeleonid Types in the Collection of the Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg. Russ. J. Herpetol. 19 (2): 155-170 - get paper here
  • Nikolsky, A. M. 1915. Faune de la Russie, Reptiles Vol. 1 Chelonia et Sauria(Reptiles of Russia and adjacent countries. Reptiles (Reptilia) Vol. 1) [in Russian]. Imper. Acad. Sci., Petrograd, 532 pp. [Translated from Russian by the Israel Program for Scientific Translations 1963]
  • Pope, CLIFFORD H. 1935. The Reptiles of China. Turtes, Crocodilians, Snakes, Lizards. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., New York, Nat. Hist. Central Asia, 10: lii, 1-604 - get paper here
  • Sindaco, R. & Jeremcenko, V.K. 2008. The reptiles of the Western Palearctic. Edizioni Belvedere, Latina (Italy), 579 pp. - get paper here
  • Strauch in: PRZEWALSKI, N.M. 1876. Mongoliya i Strana Tangutov. Tryokhletneye puteshestviye v Vostochnoj Nagoruoj Asii (= Mongolia and the Tangut Country. A Three-Year Travel in Eastern High Asia). Volumes 1-2. Imper. Russ. Geogr. Soc., St. Petersburg (in Russian; English edition, London 1876, French edition, Paris 1880, German edition, Jena 1887; abridged Russian edition with added notes, Moscow 1946). - get paper here
  • Wermuth, Heinz 1967. Liste der rezenten Amphibien und Reptilien. Agamidae. Das Tierreich 86: 1-127
  • Zeng, Zhi-Gao; Jun-Huai Bi , Shu-Ran Li , Yang Wang , Travis R. Robbins , Shao-Yong Chen , and Wei-Guo Du 2016. Habitat Alteration Influences a Desert Steppe Lizard Community: Implications of Species-Specific Preferences and Performance. Herp. Monographs 30 (1): 34-48 - get paper here
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