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Phrynocephalus persicus DE FILIPPI, 1863

IUCN Red List - Phrynocephalus persicus - Vulnerable, VU

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Higher TaxaAgamidae (Agaminae), Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesPhrynocephalus persicus horvathi MEHELY 1894
Phrynocephalus persicus persicus DE FILIPPI 1863 
Common NamesPersian Toad-headed Agama
horvathi: Transcaucasian toad-headed agama 
SynonymPhrynocephalus persicus DE FILIPPI 1863: 387
Phrynocephalus persicus — ANDERSON 1872: 388
Phrynocephalus helioscopus persicus — WERMUTH 1967: 81
Phrynocephalus helioscopus persicus — BISCHOFF 1978
Phrynocephalus persicus — FRYNTA et al. 1997
Phrynocephalus persicus — ANDERSON 1999
Phrynocephalus persicus — ANANJEVA & ORLOV 2005
Phrynocephalus (Phrynocephalus) persicus — BARABANOV & ANANJEVA 2007
Phrynocephalus persicus — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008

Phrynocephalus persicus horvathi MEHELY 1894
Phrynocephalus helioscopus var. horvathi VON MEHELY 1894
Phrynocephalus horvathi — ROSTOMBEKOV 1938: 12
Phrynocephalus helioscopus horvathi — TOSUNAGLU et al. 2011
Phrynocephalus persicus horvathi — SOLOVYEVA et al. 2011
Phrynocephalus persicus horvathi — MILTO & BARABANOV 2012
Phrynocephalus horvathi — MELNIVKOV et al. 2013
Phrynocephalus horvathi — TUNIYEV et al. 2014 
DistributionTranscaucasia through NE Iran, Turkey (E Anatolia), Azerbaijan, S Armenia

Type locality: “von Armenien bis Teheran” (fide WERMUTH 1967)

horvathi: NE Turkey, Armenia; Type locality: “Aralich, am Fusse des Ararat, Armenien” (fide WERMUTH 1967)  
TypesLectotype: ZISP 8844. Other syntypes: MSNG 9597; MZUT R392(840), R396(358); NMW 24821.
Neotype: ZISP 5544.1 [horvathi] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Nasals separated by 3-5 (exceptionally 1) series of scales; width of space between nostrils equal to distance between nostril and preocular ridge; scales of back heterogeneous, enlarged scales nail-like, often tubercular, large part of scale raised of back sides of head and neck without long flat upturned fringe-like scales (but sometimes with short spiny scales); one or both sides of fourth toe with short fringe; crossbars on tail usually most intense dorsally; entire nostril visible when head viewed from side; longitudinal nuchal crest of 3-8 mucronate, tubercular scales; no distinct transverse fold of skin across back of neck (Anderson 1999: 95). 
CommentSynonymy partly after WERMUTH 1967 and BARABANOV & ANANJEVA 2007.

Distribution: See map in SMID et al. 2014 for distribution in Iran. 
EtymologyNamed after the locality. 
  • Ananjeva, N. & Orlov, N. 2005. Lizards of North Eurasia. Reptilia (GB) (38): 54-63 - get paper here
  • Ananjeva, N. B. and N. F. Myasnikova 2006. Distribution of Phrynocephalus persicus (Agamidae, Sauria) in Aras River Valley: using of geographical information system (GIS). Modern Herpetology 5/6:18-40
  • Anderson, J. 1872. On some Persian, Himalayan, and other Reptiles. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1872: 371-404 - get paper here
  • Anderson, Steven C 1999. The lizards of Iran. Contributions to Herpetology Volume 15, Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Saint Louis, Missouri: i-vii, 1-442 [review in Copeia 2000 (4): 1144] - get paper here
  • Arakelyan, Marine S.; Felix D. Danielyan, Claudia Corti, Roberto Sindaco, and Alan E. Leviton 2011. The Herpetofauna of Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh. SSAR, Salt Lake City, 154 pp. [ISBN: 978-0-916984-84-7.]
  • BARABANOV, A.V. & N.B. ANANJEVA 2007. Catalogue of the available scientific species-group names for lizards of the genus Phrynocephalus Kaup, 1825 (Reptilia, Sauria, Agamidae). Zootaxa 1399: 1-56 - get paper here
  • Bischoff, W. 1978. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Echsen des Kaukasus. Salamandra 14 (4): 178-202 - get paper here
  • Filippi, F. de 1863. Nuove o poco note specie di animali vertebrati raccolte in um viaggio in Persia nall'estate dell'anno 1862. Arch. Zool. Anatom. Fisiol. Modena 2: 15
  • Filippi, F. de 1863. Nuove o poco note specie di animali vertebrati raccolte in un viaggio in Persia. Arch. Zool. Anat. Fisiol. (Genova) 2: 377-394 - get paper here
  • Forcart, Lothar 1950. Amphibien und Reptilien von Iran. Verh. naturf. Ges. Basel 61: 141-156
  • Frynta,D. et al. 1997. Results of the Czech biological expedition to Iran. Part 1. Notes on the distribution of amphibians and reptiles. Acta Soc. Zool. Bohem. 61: 3-17
  • Gemel, R.; G. Gassner & S. Schweiger 2019. Katalog der Typen der Herpetologischen Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien – 2018. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B 121: 33–248
  • Méhely,L. 1894. Beiträge zur Herpetologie Transkaukasiens und Armeniens (Teil 1+2). Zool. Anz. 17: 78-80, 81-86 - get paper here
  • Melnikov, Daniel; Ekaterina Melnikova, Roman Nazarov and Mahdi Rajabizadeh 2013. TAXONOMIC REVISION OF PHRYNOCEPHALUS PERSICUS DE FILIPPI, 1863 COMPLEX WITH DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES FROM ZAGROS, SOUTHERN IRAN. Current Studies in Herpetology 13 (1/2): 34–46.
  • Milto, Konstantin D.; Andrei V. Barabanov 2012. A Catalogue of the Agamid and Chamaeleonid Types in the Collection of the Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg. Russ. J. Herpetol. 19 (2): 155-170 - get paper here
  • Nikolsky, A. M. 1905. Herpetologia rossica. Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci., Phys.-Math. Classe, St. Pétersbourg, XVII (1): 1-518
  • RASTEGAR-POUYANI, NASRULLAH; HAJI GHOLI KAMI, MEHDI RAJABZADEH, SOHEILA SHAFIEI AND STEVEN CLEMENT ANDERSON 2008. Annotated Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles of Iran. Iranian Journal of Animal Biosystematics 4 (1): 7-30
  • Sindaco, R. & Jeremcenko, V.K. 2008. The reptiles of the Western Palearctic. Edizioni Belvedere, Latina (Italy), 579 pp. - get paper here
  • Sindaco, Roberto; Alberto Venchi, Giuseppe M. Carpaneto, Marco A. Bologna 2000. The Reptiles of Anatolia: a Checklist and Zoogeographical analysis. Biogeographia, 21-2000: 441-554. - get paper here
  • ŠMÍD, JIŘÍ; JIŘÍ MORAVEC, PETR KODYM, LUKÁŠ KRATOCHVÍL, SEYYED SAEED HOSSEINIAN YOUSEFKHANI, ESKANDAR RASTEGAR-POUYANI & DANIEL FRYNTA 2014. Annotated checklist and distribution of the lizards of Iran. Zootaxa 3855 (1): 001–097 - get paper here
  • Solovyeva, E. N.; N. A. Poyarkov, E. A. Dunaev, T. N. Dujsebayeva, and A. A. Bannikova 2011. Molecular Differentiation and Taxonomy of the Sunwatcher Toad-Headed Agama Species Complex Phrynocephalus Superspecies helioscopus (Pallas 1771) (Reptilia: Agamidae). Russian Journal of Genetics 47 (7): 842–856 - get paper here
  • Tosunoğlu, Murat; Çiğdem Gül, Hüseyin Topyıldız,İbrahim Uysal 2011. Notes on Distribution, Ecology, and Morphological Characters of Phrynocephalus helioscopus horvathi Mehely, 1894 from Northeast Anatolia. Russ. J. Herpetol. 18 (4): 247–252 - get paper here
  • Tuniyev B.S., Tuniyev S.B., Avcı A., Ilgaz Ç. 2014. Herpetological studies in Eastern and North-Eastern Turkey. Current Studies in Herpetology 14 (1/2): 44–53. Резюме - get paper here
  • Wermuth, Heinz 1967. Liste der rezenten Amphibien und Reptilien. Agamidae. Das Tierreich 86: 1-127
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