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Phrynonax polylepis (PETERS, 1867)

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Northeastern Puffing Snake
Portuguese: Caninana, Cobra-Cipó, Papa-Ovo, Papa-Pinto, Papa-Pinto-de-Papo-Vermelho, Papa-Rato, Rateira, Surucucu-Facão 
SynonymAhaetulla polylepis PETERS 1867: 709
Spilotes fasciatus PETERS 1869: 443
Phrynonax fasciatus — BOULENGER 1894: 21
Phrynonax eutropis BOULENGER 1894: 22
Phrynonax lyoni STEJNEGER 1902: 185
Phrynonax atriceps WERNER 1913: 22
Phrynonax poecilonotus polylepis — AMARAL 1929: 313
Pseustes poecilonotus polylepis — BRONGERSMA 1937: 6
Phrynonax lyoni — RENDAHL 1937
Pseustes poecilonotus polylepis — BEEBE 1946: 39
Pseustes poecilonotus polylepis — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 258
Pseustes poecilonotus polylepis — GASC & RODRIGUES 1980
Pseutes poecilonotus polylepis — MEHRTENS 1987 (in error)
Pseustes poecilonotus polylepis — GORZULA & SEÑARIS 1999
Pseustes poecilonotus polylepis — WHITHWORTH & BEIRNE 2011
Phrynonax polylepis — JADIN et al. 2013
Pseustes polylepis — FELDMAN et al. 2015
Phrynonax lyoni — NATERA-MUMAW et al. 2015: 82
Phrynonax polylepis — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionBrazil (Pará), Venezuela (Trinidad), Ecuador

Type locality: “Suriname”

Type locality: “angeblich vom Maroni’ [Suriname] [Spilotes fasciatus PETERS 1869]  
TypesHolotype: ZMB 5899
Holotype: ZMB 6455 [Spilotes fasciatus PETERS 1869]
Holotype: USNM 27826 [Phrynonax lyoni] 
CommentSynonymy partly after VILLA et al. 1988 and PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970. FRANKLIN & FRANKLIN 1999 in [HR 30: 114]. Listed as synonym of Pseustes poecilonotus by WALLACH et al. 2014: 612. The record of P. poecilonotus polilepis by Lemoine et al (1998) is based on mistake of Pseustes shropshirei (Marco Natera, pers. comm.).

Pseustes poecilonotus is an extremely variable species. Attempts to define subspecies based on these patterns have not been satisfactory.

Habitat: partly arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018). 
  • Amaral, A. D. 1929. Estudo sobre ophidios neotropicos XX. Revisao do genero Phrynonax Cope, 1862. Mem. Inst. Butantan 4: 301-320 - get paper here
  • Beebe, William 1946. Field notes on the snakes of Kartabo, British Guiana, and Caripito, Venezuela. Zoologica 31: 11-52 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1894. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume II., Containing the Conclusion of the Colubridæ Aglyphæ. British Mus. (Nat. Hist.), London, xi, 382 pp. - get paper here
  • Brongersma, L. D. 1937. Herpetological Notes XIV - XVI. XV. The type of Dipsas dieperinkii Schlegel, 1837, and the genus Pseustes Fitzinger, 1843. Zoologische Mededelingen 20: 1-10 - get paper here
  • Gasc & Rodrigues 1980. Liste preliminaire des Serpents de la Guyane francaise. Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat. Paris 2 (4): 559-598
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Gorzula, Stefan & Senaris, J. Celsa 1999. In: Contribution to the herpetofauna of the Venezuelan Guayana. I: a data base. Scientia Guaianae, Caracas, No. 8 [1998], 269+ pp.; ISBN 980-6020-48-0
  • Harrington, Sean M; Jordyn M de Haan, Lindsey Shapiro, Sara Ruane 2018. Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (1): 61–71 - get paper here
  • Hedges SB, Powell R, Henderson RW, Hanson S, and Murphy JC 2019. Definition of the Caribbean Islands biogeographic region, with checklist and recommendations for standardized common names of amphibians and reptiles. Caribbean Herpetology 67: 1–53
  • Jadin, R. C., Burbrink, F. T., Rivas, G. A., Vitt, L. J., Barrio-Amorós, C. L. and Guralnick, R. P. 2013. Finding arboreal snakes in an evolutionary tree: phylogenetic placement and systematic revision of the Neotropical birdsnakes. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research. 52 (3): 257–264; doi: 10.1111/jzs.12055 - get paper here
  • Mehrtens, J.M. 1987. Living snakes of the world in color. Sterling Publ. Co., hic., New York, NY: 480 pp.
  • Natera-Mumaw, Marco; Luis Felipe Esqueda-González & Manuel Castelaín-Fernández 2015. Atlas Serpientes de Venezuela. Santiago de Chile, Dimacofi Negocios Avanzados S.A., 456 pp. - get paper here
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo, Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins, Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • Peters, James A.; Donoso-Barros, Roberto & Orejas-Miranda, Braulio 1970. Catalogue of the Neotropical Squamata: Part I Snakes. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 297: 347 pp. - get paper here
  • Peters, Wilhem Carl Hartwig 1867. Über Flederthiere (Pteropus gouldii, Rhinolophus deckenii, Vespertilio lobipes, Vesperugo temminckii) und Amphibien (Hypsilurus godeffroyi, Lygosoma scutatum, Stenostoma narirostre, Onychocephalus unguirostris, Ahaetulla poylepis, Pseudechis scutella Monatsber. königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin. 1867 (November): 703-712 - get paper here
  • Peters,W.C.H. 1869. Über neue Gattungen und neue oder weniger bekannte Arten von Amphibien (Eremias, Dicrodon, Euprepes, Lygosoma, Typhlops, Eryx, Rhynchonyx, Elapomorphus, Achalinus, Coronella, Dromicus, Xenopholis, Anoplodipsas, Spilotes, Tropidonotus). Monatsber. k. preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1869: 432-447 - get paper here
  • Rendahl, H. 1937. Einige Reptilien aus Ecuador und Bolivia. Ark. Zool. 29 (13): 1-19.
  • Stejneger, L. 1902. An annotated list of batrachians and reptiles collected in the vicinity of La Guaira, Venezuela, with descriptions of two new species of snakes. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 24 [1901]: 179-192. - get paper here
  • Torres-Carvajal O, Pazmiño-Otamendi G, Salazar-Valenzuela D. 2019. Reptiles of Ecuador: a resource-rich portal, with a dynamic checklist and photographic guides. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 13 (1): [General Section]: 209–229 (e178) - get paper here
  • Werner, F. 1913. Neue oder seltene Reptilien und Frösche des Naturhistorischen Museums in Hamburg. Reptilien der Ostafrika-Expedition der Hamburger Geographischen Gesellschaft 1911/12. Leiter: Dr. E. Obst. Reptilien und Amphibien von Formosa. Jb. Hamb. wiss. Anst., 30 [1912], 2. Beiheft: 1-39, 40-45, 45-51 - get paper here
  • Whithworth, A. & Beirne, C. 2011. Reptiles of the Yachana Reserve. Global Vision International, 130 pp. - get paper here
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