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Phrynops williamsi RHODIN & MITTERMEIER, 1983

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Higher TaxaChelidae, Chelinae, Pleurodira, Testudines (turtles)
Common NamesE: William’s Toadhead Turtle, William’s South-American Side-necked Turtle
Portuguese: Cágado-de-Barbela, Cágado-de-Ferradura, Cágado-de-Ferradura-Sulino 
SynonymPhrynops williamsi RHODIN & MITTERMEIER in RHODIN & MIYATA 1983
Phrynops williamsi — MCCORD et al. 2001
Phrynops williamsi — BOUR & ZAHER 2005
Phrynops williamsi — TTWG 2014
Phrynops williamsi — TTWG 2021 
DistributionSE Brazil (Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná), Uruguay, Argentina (Misiones), Paraguay (fide Paul Smith, pers. comm., 27 Apr 2014)

Type locality: Rio Cadea, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil  
TypesHolotype: MCZ 64135 
CommentFor a color illustration and distribution map see MCCORD & JOSEPH-OUNI 2002.

Habitat: freshwater (rivers) 
EtymologyNamed after Dr. Ernest Edward Williams (1914-1998), a herpetologist, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard. 
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Bonin, F., Devaux, B. & Dupré, A. 2006. Turtles of the World. English translation by P.C.H. Pritchard. Johns Hopkins University Press, 416 pp.
  • Borteiro, Claudio; Kolenc, Francisco; Prigioni, Carlos 2015. A new noteworthy record of Phrynops williamsi Rhodin & Mittermeier (Testudines, Chelidae) in Uruguay. Cuad. herpetol. 29 (1): - get paper here
  • Bour, R. 2008. Global diversity of turtles (Chelonii; Reptilia) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595:593–598 - get paper here
  • Bour, R. & Zaher, H. 2005. A NEW SPECIES OF MESOCLEMMYS, FROM THE OPEN FORMATIONS OF NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL (CHELONII, CHELIDAE). Pap. Avul. Zool., Sao Paulo 45 (24): 295-311 - get paper here
  • Buskirk, James R. 1989. Field observations on Phrynops williamsi and other Uruguayan chelonians. Vivarium 1 (4): 8-11
  • Cabrera, Mario R. 1993. Phrynops williamsi (Williams' South American Sideneck Turtle). Argentina: Corrientes. Herpetological Review 24 (2): 65-66 - get paper here
  • Cacciali, Pier; Norman J. Scott, Aida Luz Aquino Ortíz, Lee A. Fitzgerald, and Paul Smith 2016. The Reptiles of Paraguay: Literature, Distribution, and an Annotated Taxonomic Checklist. SPECIAL PUBLICATION OF THE MUSEUM OF SOUTHWESTERN BIOLOGY, NUMBER 11: 1–373 - get paper here
  • Carreira, S.; Brazeiro, A.; Camargo, A.; da Rosa, I.; Canavero, A. & Maneyro, M. 2012. DIVERSITY OF REPTILES OF URUGUAY: KNOWLEDGE AND INFORMATION GAPS. Bol. Soc. Zool. Uruguay (2a época) 21 (1-2): 9-29 - get paper here
  • Ernst,C.H. and Barbour,R.W. 1989. Turtles of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. - London
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Kunz, Tobias Saraiva; Ivo Rohling Ghizoni-Jr., Jorge José Cherem, Raissa Fries Bressan, Simone Baratto Leonardi, Juliana Conte Zanotelli 2018. New records, threats and conservation of Phrynops williamsi (Testudines: Chelidae) in southern Brazil. Herpetology Notes 11: 147-152 - get paper here
  • McCord, W. P., Joseph-Ouni, M.i & W. W. Lamar 2001. A taxonomic reevaluation of Phrynops (Testudines: Chelidae) with the description of two new genera and a new species of Batrachemys. Revista de Biologia Tropical 49 (2): 715-764 - get paper here
  • McCord, W.P. & Joseph-Ouni, M. 2002. Chelonian illustrations #1: South American Toadhead Turtles. Reptilia (GB) (21): 34-38 - get paper here
  • Rhodin A G J; Mittermeier R A; Buskirk J R 1988. Phrynops williamsi Rhodin and Mittermeier. Williams' South American side-necked turtle. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles ( 439: 1-2 - get paper here
  • Rhodin,A.G.J. & MITTERMAIER,R.A. 1983. Description of Phrynops williamsi, a new species of chelid turtle of the South American complex. In RHODIN & MIYATA (eds.): Advances in Herpetology and Evolutionary Biology. Cambridge, Mus. Comp. Zool. pp. 58-73 - get paper here
  • RIBAS, E. R. ; MONTEIRO FILHO, Emygdio Leite de Araujo 2002. Distribution and Habitat of the Freshwater Turtles (Testudines, Chelidae) from State of Paraná – Brasil. Biociências (Porto Alegre) 10 (2): 15-32
  • Souza, Franco L. 2004. Uma revisão sobre padrões de atividade, reprodução e alimentação de cágados brasileiros (Testudines, Chelidae) [A review on activity patterns, reproduction, and feeding habits in Brazilian chelid turtles (Testudines, Chelidae)]. Phyllomedusa 3 (1): 15-28 - get paper here
  • TTWG [Peter Paul van Dijk, John B. Iverson, Anders G.J. Rhodin, H. Bradley Shaffer, and Roger Bour] 2014. Turtles of the World, 7th Edition: Annotated Checklist of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution with Maps, and Conservation Status. 000.v7. Chelonian Research Monographs (ISSN 1088-7105) No. 5, doi:10.3854/crm.5.000.checklist.v7.2014 - get paper here
  • TTWG; Rhodin, A.G.J., Iverson, J.B., Bour, R., Fritz, U., Georges, A., Shaffer, H.B., and van Dijk, P.P. 2021. Turtles of the World: Annotated Checklist and Atlas of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution, and Conservation Status (9th Ed.). In: Rhodin, A.G.J., Iverson, J.B., van Dijk, P.P., Stanford, C.B., Goode, E.V., Buhlmann, K.A., and Mittermeier, R.A. (Eds.). Chelonian Research Monographs 8:1–472. doi:10.3854/crm.8.checklist.atlas.v9.2021. - get paper here
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