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Phrynosoma cerroense STEJNEGER, 1893

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Higher TaxaPhrynosomatidae, Phrynosomatinae, Phrynosomatini; Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Cedros Island Horned Lizard
G: Cedros-Krötenechse
E: Gulf Coast Horned Lizard [wigginsi]
S: Camaleón de Isla Cedros 
SynonymPhrynosoma cerroense STEJNEGER 1893: 187
Phrynosoma cerroense — VAN DENBURGH 1895: 119
Phrynosoma cerroense — COPE 1900
Phrynosoma jamesi SCHMIDT 1922: 668
Phrynosoma coronatum jamesi — LINSDALE 1932: 349 (part.)
Phrynosoma coronatum jamesi — KLAUBER 1936: 13
Phrynosoma coronatum jamesi — KLAUBER 1936
Phrynosoma cerroense — KLAUBER 1936
Phrynosoma coronatum jamesi — REEVE 1952: 884 (part.)
Phrynosoma cerroense — REEVE 1952
Phrynosoma cerroense — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 103
Phrynosoma coronatum jamesi — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 102
Phrynosoma coronatum jamesi — JENNINGS 1988: 428.2 (part.)
Phrynosoma cerroense — LINER 1994
Phrynosoma wigginsi MONTANUCCI 2004
Phrynosoma cerroense — LINER 2007
Phrynosoma cerroense — LEACHÉ et al. 2009
Phrynosoma wigginsi — JONES & LOVICH 2009
Phrynosoma wigginsi — WILSON et al. 2013
Phrynosoma wigginsi — JOHNSON et al. 2017
Phrynosoma coronatum cerroense — KÖHLER 2021 
DistributionMexico (Cerros Island)

Type locality: Cerros Island, Pacific Coast of Baja California [= Cedros Island]

wigginsi: Mexico (Baja California Sur); Type locality: Cuesta Coyote, Bahía Concepción, Baja California Sur, Mexico.  
TypesHolotype: USNM 11977
Holotype: CAS-SUR 11377 [wigginsi] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Amoderate-sized (maximum snout- vent length about 85 mm) Phrynosoma of the coronatum group with a black-spotted, smooth-scaled venter, two rows of pointed lateral fringe scales (the lower one greatly reduced) on each side of the body, and three rows of enlarged gular scales on each side of the throat. The dorsal coloration is steel-gray with three pairs of equally- spaced, irregular, dark blotches. There are two occipital spines three times longer than the basal width and not in contact at the base, and fourtemporal spines on each side ofthehead (with the 4th from the rear greatly reduced or absent). ChinshieJds number four per side and a moderately developed postrictal scale is present. The rympa- num is evident externally. There are no ·dark stripes on the face (Jennings 1988).

Defiition (jamesi). A subspecieswith three or more rows of enlarged gular scales on each side, a moderately developed postrictal scale, four (usually) enlarged, laterally or anteriorly projecting temporal spines on each side of the head (the fourth from the rear is reduced leaving a gap in continuity), and the subrictal scale slightly above the row of chinshields (Jennings 1988). 
CommentSynonymy: partly following MONTANUCCI 2004 who included Phrynosoma coronatum jamesi in the synonymy of P. wigginsi). GRISMER & MELLINK (1994) placed P. cerroense in the synonymy of P. coronatum. The description of P. wigginsi is a bit vague and the “species” is closely related to P. coronatum”. There is some doubt that this is a valid species (Wiens et al. 2013). Leaché & Linkem 2015 consider wigginsi as a synonym of cerroense, which is followed here. Köhler 2021 synonymized james with cerroense.

Group: Belongs to the Anota clade fide LEACHE & MCGUIRE 2006.

NCBI taxon ID: 372476 [wigginsi] 
EtymologyNamed after the type locality.

P. wigginsi was named after Ira L. Wiggins, in recognition of his important contributions to the knowledge of the flora of the Sonoran Desert. 
  • Cope, E.D. 1900. The crocodilians, lizards and snakes of North America. Ann. Rep. U.S. Natl. Mus. 1898: 153-1270 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L. Lee; Mellink, Eric 1994. The addition of Sceloporus occidentalis to the herpetofauna of Isla de Cedros, Baja California, México and its historical and taxonomic implications. Journal of Herpetology 28 (1): 120-126 - get paper here
  • Jennings, M. R. 1988. Phrynosoma cerroense (Stejneger): Cedros Island horned lizard. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles ( 427: 1-2 - get paper here
  • Jennings, M. R. 1988. Phrynosoma coronatum (Blainville): Coast horned lizard. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles ( 428: 1-5. - get paper here
  • Johnson, J. D., L. D. Wilson, V. Mata-Silva, E. García-Padilla, and D. L. DeSantis. 2017. The endemic herpetofauna of Mexico: organisms of global significance in severe peril. Mesoamerican Herpetology 4(3): 544–620 - get paper here
  • Jones, L.L. & Lovich, R.E. 2009. Lizards of the American Southwest. A photographic field guide. Rio Nuevo Publishers, Tucson, AZ, 568 pp. [review in Reptilia 86: 84] - get paper here
  • Klauber, L. M. 1936. The Horned Toads of the coronatum Group. Copeia, Vol. 1936, No. 2 (Jul. 31, 1936), pp. 103-110 - get paper here
  • Leaché, A. D., McElroy, M. T. and Trinh, A. 2018. A genomic evaluation of taxonomic trends through time in coast horned lizards (genus Phrynosoma). Mol Ecol. doi:10.1111/mec.14715 - get paper here
  • Leaché, Adam D. and Charles W. Linkem 2015. Phylogenomics of Horned Lizards (Genus: Phrynosoma) Using Targeted Sequence Capture Data. Copeia 2015 (3): 586-594 - get paper here
  • Leaché, Adam D. and Jimmy A. McGuire 2006. Phylogenetic relationships of horned lizards (Phrynosoma ) based on nuclear and mitochondrial data: Evidence for a misleading mitochondrial gene tree. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 39 (3): 628-644 - get paper here
  • Leaché, Adam D;.Michelle S. Koo, Carol L. Spencer, Theodore J. Papenfuss, Robert N. Fisher, and Jimmy A. McGuire 2009. Quantifying ecological, morphological, and genetic variation to delimit species in the coast horned lizard species complex (Phrynosoma). PNAS 2009 106:12418-12423 - get paper here
  • Liner, Ernest A. 2007. A CHECKLIST OF THE AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF MEXICO. Louisiana State University Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural Science 80: 1-60 - get paper here
  • Linsdale, J.M. 1932. Amphibians and reptiles from lower California. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 38 (6): 345-386
  • Montanucci, R.R. 2004. Geographic variation in Phrynosoma coronatum (Lacertilia, Phrynosomatidae): further evidence for a peninsular archipelago. Herpetologica 60 (1): 117-139 - get paper here
  • Presch,W. 1969. Evolutionary osteology and relationships of the horned lizard genus Phrynosoma (family Iguanidae). Copeia 1969 (2): 250-275 - get paper here
  • Reeve, Wayne L. 1952. Taxonomy and distribution of the horned lizard genus Phrynosoma. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 34 (14): 817-960 - get paper here
  • Stejneger, L.H. 1893. Annotated list of the reptiles and batrachians collected by the Death Valley Expedition in 1891, with descriptions of new species. North American Fauna, No. 7: 159-228 (+ 14 plates + 4 maps) - get paper here
  • Van Denburgh,J. 1895. A review of the herpetology of Lower California. Part I - Reptiles. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (2) 5: 77-163 - get paper here
  • Wiens, John J.; Kenneth H. Kozak, and Natalia Silva 2013. DIVERSITY AND NICHE EVOLUTION ALONG ARIDITY GRADIENTS IN NORTH AMERICAN LIZARDS (PHRYNOSOMATIDAE). Evolution, 67: 1715–1728. doi: 10.1111/evo.12053 - get paper here
  • Wilson, Larry David; Vicente Mata-Silva, Jerry D. Johnson 2013. A conservation reassessment of the reptiles of Mexico based on the EVS measure. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 7 (1): 1–47 - get paper here
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